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Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses to the Wittenberg castle church door in 1517 to challenge the Roman Catholic Church's practice of indulgences and its interest in worldly affairs. The Church considered this an attack on ecclesiastical authority and heretical and eventually excommunicated the monk in 1520. THe Lutheran movement spread across northern Germany and into Scandinavia. This and other reform movements brewing in Europe at the time, such as that led by John Calvin, formed what is known as the Protestant Reformation.