Select an environmental issue/disaster of their choice.
Is The Alumina Industry Facing Correctly The Prevention Of New Red Mud Spills?
In the paper, include:
• Brief summary of what occurred.
• What short-term/immediate environmental/health impacts occurred?
• What potential or long-term environmental/health impacts occurred/will occur?
• What has been implemented or changed to prevent another similar incident from occurring?
• Do you believe those changes are adequate? If not, what would you suggest ?
The paper is to be five (5) pages in length.

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As many spills, the red-mud spillage is always a primary concern for the inhabitants of the neighborhood of alumina plants. Disasters like the Ajka-Kolontár in 2010 or the one occurred in China more recently, reveals that the injury to people and environment can be substantial, even in the case that the emergency and rescue action function properly.
The rupture of the red-mud dam at Ajka-Kolontár and its consequences engaged the government and non-profit aid organizations actions to assist the injured people and to prevent further impact in the soil and water bodies. The issue was sensible because the emblematic Danube was in danger to be impacted, being a potential regional (European) crisis. Due to the fact that the so-called toxic waste can be rapidly neutralized and its effect mitigated, the emergency actions were able to reduce the impact relatively quickly. Injured people were also assisted.
The disaster chronology was revised, the emergency actions were discussed, the short-term and long-term effects were also briefly analyzed and a profuse literature about the disaster was reviewed, summarizing some highlight findings in this report.
However, even with the high media exposure of the issue, not enough emphasis was put in the long-term solution, which according with the investigated literature seems to be a major technology change in the red-mud disposal system. Evidence was found that there is possible to separate the solid and liquid parts of the mud, for allowing the dry-stack of the huge amounts of solid residue that unavoidably were generated with alumina production without further risks to the life beings and environment. Techniques like pressure filtration can produce dried filter-cakes and recovered caustic diluted liquor. This caustic stream can be evaluated for reuse (caustic is raw material in alumina production) or safely neutralized before further disposal. The solid residue could be used as raw material for other processes (theoretically possible, but even after decades of research still not possible, at least in a scale that meets the enormous amount of produced waste) or at least deposited dry in piles, that due to its better consistency can be taller and with lesser footprint.
In summary, it is not sure that the lessons...

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