Explanation and Evaluation of Key Ideas of Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, etc. (1260 words)

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Answer these questions:
1-Explain and evaluate Rene Descartes argument for knowledge including the role of skepticism, the evil demon, and god in resolving his doubts.
2-Explain and evaluate Thomas Hobbes view that all objects are material, including thoughts, feelings and ideas.
3-Explain and evaluate John Locke’s Theory of Representative Realism and of primary and secondary qualities.
4-Explain and evaluate Benedictus de Spinoza’s view the “God is all” (or everything).
5-Explain and evaluate Benedictus de Spinoza’s view that we are determined to be free in the context of the notion of free will.
6-Explain and evaluate Anne Conway's monism in light of the fact that she argues for 2 distinct substances

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Unlike other philosophers for whom skepticism forms the very core of their epistemological views, for Descartes skepticism was a tool, the means by way of which he constructed an epistemology in which knowledge and certainty are possible. It is vital to keep Descartes’ epistemological goal in mind – he sought to identify and understand how to discern, how to tell the difference between “mere belief” (p.100) and “certain knowledge” (p.100). So what was his plan, his map for how to go about this epistemological expedition? It was ingenious and strikingly simple: he would attempt to raise doubt about everything—every claim, every belief, every piece of ‘knowledge’—and anything that survived such rigorous testing, anything which seemed invulnerable to doubt, would have to be certain knowledge; then, he would examine this piece of certain knowledge...
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