# Multiple Choice Questions on Logic Explained (Introduction to Logic)

Subject Philosophy Logic

## Question

1) A belief is worth accepting if:
1-It has not been proven wrong
2-It is accepted by our peers
3-We have good reasons to accept it

2) Probably the best advice for anyone trying to uncover or dissect arguments is:
1-Find the premises first
2-Find the conclusion first
3-Paraphrase the arguments

3) The function of an explanation is to try to:
1-Prove that a statement is true
2-Show why or how something is the way it is
3-Show that a statement is in dispute

4) The sentence - "Going to war was a mistake" is an example of:
1-An argument
2-An argument with an implied premise
3-A statement

5) Your believing that something is true:
1-Makes it probable
2-Makes it true
3-Does not make it true

6) For critical thinkers, the best way to deal with group pressure is to:
1-Proportion your belief to the strength of the reasons
2-Proportion your belief to the strength of group influence
3-Reject claims endorsed by groups
4-Accept only claims endorsed by preferred groups

7) Research shows that memories:
1-Are highly reliable
2-Are not exact copies of past events
3-Are unalterable

8) Prejudice is:
1-A belief or an opinion that most people disagree with
2-A judgement or opinion based on insufficient reasonings

9) An inductive argument is intended to provide:
1-Valid support for its conclusion
2-Probable support for its conclusion
3-Truth preserving support for its conclusion

10) A deductively valid argument can not have:
1-True premises and a false conclusion
2-False premises and a true conclusion
3-False premises and a false conclusion

11) The classic argument - "All men are mortal, Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal" is:
1-Inductively strong
2-Deductively cogent
3-Deductively valid

12) This argument - "If Buffalo is the capital of NY, then Buffalo is in NY, Buffalo is in NY, therefore Buffalo is the capital of NY" is:
1-Affirming the consequent
2-Disjunctive syllogism
3-Valid modus penens

13) It is reasonable to accept the evidence provided by personal experience only if:
1-It is backed by scientific evidence
2-There's no good reason to back it
3-Everybody else believes it

14) We fall into fallacious appeal to authority by:
1-Checking an experts credentials
2-Regarding a non expert as an expert
3-Regarding an expert as a non expert

15) The error of thinking that previous events can affect the probabilities in the random event at hand is known as:
1-The gamblers fallacy
2-The availability error
3-The appeal to ignorance

16) When we seek out and use only evidence that confirms our views, we are guilty of:
1-Fallacious appeals to authority
2-Confirmation bias
3-Appeal to ignorance

17) Fallacies can be psychologically even though they are:
1-Psychologically omnipotent
2-Logically flawed
3-Deductively valid

18) An unwarranted conclusion about an entire group of people is known as a:
1-Straw man
2-Red herring
3-Stereotype

19) The following paragraph – "85% of dentists who suggest that their patients chew gum recommend Orbit gum. Therefore, 85% of dentists recommend orbit gum" is an example of:
1-Valid deductive arguments
2-Strong inductive argument
3-Fallacy of unrepresentative sample

20) The following paragraph - "Computers will never be able to converse with human being well enough to be indistinguishable from humans" is an example of:
1-Nonargument statement of opinion
2-Valid deductive argument
3-Weak analogy

21) The following paragraph - "It’s true that I smoke, but I'm not going to worry about every habit I have. I could die tomorrow by slipping on a banana peel, so I will enjoy life today" is an example of:
1-Rationalization
2-Appeal to ignorance
3-Slippery slope

22) When we reason that just because B followed A, A, must have caused B, we fall for fallacy known as:
1-Faulty analogy
2-Hasty generalization
3-Post hoc, ergo propter hoc

23) The following paragraph - "I conclude that there is no intelligent life on other planet anywhere in the galaxy, since no one has ever confirmed that there is." is an example of:
1-Strong inductive argument
2-Hasty generalization
3-Appeal to ignorance

24) The following paragraph - "There is no past or future, even in thought, because to think if you have to make it present” is an example of:
1-Equivocation
2-Invalid deductive argument
3-Fallacy of unrepresentative sample

25) The following paragraph - "If we legalize same sex marriage, based on argument that what defes marriage is love and commitment, then the next thing you know, people will argue they should be allowed to marry their pets” is an example of:
1-Equivocation
2-False dilemma
3-Slippery slope

26) The following paragraph - "During the debate on the equal rights amendment, one of the senators dismissed arguments by feminists who testified before congress by referring to these women as small band of bra-less bubble heads” is an example of:
2-Division
3-Straw man

27) A fruitful theory is:
1-Makes the most sense
2-Makes conservative predictions
3-Makes novel predictions

28) If a theory is externally inconsistent, we have reason to believe that it is:
1-False
2-Internally consistent
3-Internally inconsistent

29) Testable theories include:
1-Theory of witches
2-Theory that natural disasters are Gods punishment
3-Theory that the world will end in 2012

## Solution Preview

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1) A belief is worth accepting if:
1-It has not been proven wrong
2-It is accepted by our peers
3-We have good reasons to accept it

3 - A belief is worth accepting if we have good reasons to accept it....

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