Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question.

1. There's a general and inaccurate feeling among police officers that
A. civil lawsuits rarely result in findings against the police.
B. frivolous lawsuits are few and far between.
C. they can be sued for anything.
D. liability insurance is expensive.

2. It's not considered a police crime when an officer
A. assaults a member of his family.
B. violates the constitutional rights of suspect.
C. steals money from a victim of crime.
D. uses excessive force against a suspect.

3. Research indicates that the primary factor for killing police officers is
A. psychological dependence of the offender.
B. to escape apprehension.
C. the situation in which the incident occurred.
D. anti-social personalities of the offenders.

4. An individual's freedom from the threat of having to post excessive bail or pay excessive fines is guaranteed by the _______ Amendment.
A. Eighth
B. Fifth
C. Sixth
D. Seventh

5. In police subculture, _______ is a central organizing concept of police values.
A. command
B. authority
C. discretion
D. secrecy

6. Ray and Susan are discussing civil liability and tort law. Ray says that a tort is conduct that interferes with the private interests of an individual or property. Susan says that torts are subject to criminal punishment. Who is correct?
A. Both are correct.
B. Only Susan is correct.
C. Neither is correct.
D. Only Ray is correct.

7. According to McEwen, excessive use of force takes place when officers
A. apply force in too many instances.
B. make felony arrests.
C. apply too much force in a specific instance.
D. encounter any resistance.

8. Charges for narcotics or weapons possession crimes usually result in
A. pleas without the necessity of grand jury or trial testimony.
B. stacked charges.
C. cases being dropped by the prosecutor.
D. pleas after the grand jury meets.

9. People outside the police community are seen warily and as potential threats, which lead the group of officers to
A. its specific world view.
B. isolation.
C. harmony.
D. be in conflict with the community.

10. The idea that when people act ethically, they're guided by good intentions originated with
A. Immanuel Kant.
B. George Moore.
C. John Stuart Mill.
D. Jeremy Bentham.

11. The Commission on Police Integrity in Chicago determined in 1997 that
A. police corruption was less likely to involve drugs than in previous years.
B. the vast majority of policemen dealt in huge amounts of graft.
C. aggressive forms of corruption had replaced systemic bribery schemes.
D. corruption was generally uniform.

12. Behaviors so dangerous or hazardous that any reasonable person would know injuries will probably occur are associated with
A. strict tort liability.
B. intentional torts.
C. accidental torts.
D. criminal tort liability.

13. The Supreme Court has ruled that police use of force must be
A. used only if officer safety is a concern.
B. reduced.
C. based on community standards.
D. objectively reasonable.

14. The transmission of police culture from one generation to the next is based on which element(s)?
A. Training
B. Rules
C. Postulates
D. Code

15. Which is the first level of reasonable force available to a police officer?
A. Baton
B. His or her presence in uniform
C. Soft hand
D. Hard hand

16. Kraska and Kappeler's 1995 study found that incidents of police sexual violence are
A. not merely the product of aberrant officers or departments.
B. based on operational justifications found in police work.
C. often surrounded by cultural or institutional support.
D. evenly dispersed across types of police agencies and officer ranks.

17. Police officers tend to view the world as being composed of which two groups?
A. Cops and others
B. Homogenous groups and those with opposing points of view
C. Good guys and bad guys
D. Those supporting law and those that bend the law

18. All of the following are elements needed to establish a case of negligence except which one?
A. Damage or injury
B. Mental state of the officer
C. Breach of legal duty
D. Legal duty

19. The force continuum is based on what principle?
A. The reasonable force necessary to effectively arrest or subdue a subject
B. Court decisions
C. The most effective method to overcome physical resistance
D. The various community standards

20. Which of the following is not a role of law in our society?
A. Controlling individuals' and government's actions
B. Regulating distribution of rights and property
C. Regulating the minority
D. Maintaining the status quo

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Question 1: The answer is option C.
Question 2: The answer is option D.
Question 3: The answer is option B.
Question 4: The answer is option A....

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