Section: Literature Review

Cooper, D., & Schindler, P.   (2011). Business research methods. 11th ed.   
New York:   McGraw-Hill Higher Education.   ISBN-13: 9780073373706

A literature review is a summary of previous research around a topic. A literature review can be a standalone research document, or be part of a larger body of work such as a thesis or a dissertation. Literature reviews need several components, including key underlying theories and considerations such as legal and ethical concerns that become thematic elements for the study.

Required Reading:
Cooper, D., & Schindler, P. (2008). Chapter: 2.

Johnson III, R. G. & Borrego, E. (2009, June).
O’Kelly, C. & Dubnick, M. J. (2006).

Literature Review: Key Underlying Theories
Complete a Literature Review
Create a literature review by analyzing different key underlying theories and themes that will support your proposed research topic. Your literature review should include at least 10-15 peer-reviewed journal articles.

Begin the literature review with an introductory section that alerts the reader to the organization and the contents of the paper. Next, use themes and/or subtopics as headings. Identify the themes or sub-topics around which the literature review has been organized into a coherent narrative discussion. In the review, at least 10 of the most important works or studies that touch upon the topic should be discussed. Be sure to include works that provide alternate or opposing perspectives on the proposed topic area to demonstrate unbiased research. Focus particularly on those works that address main ideas in the field, spell out areas of controversy, and indicate areas of incomplete knowledge. Include historical and germinal works as well as current works (within the last 5 years).

Length: 5-7 pages (app. 350 words per page)

Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

Assignment Outcomes
Evaluate theoretical and conceptual knowledge in the field of Public Administration.
Evaluate professional applications in the field of Public Administration.
Create a literature review using a baseline of fundamental elements that will be relevant to your specialization.

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

In order to remain competitive in the world, the United States will have to provide a high quality science education to its students. The teaching of science must begin in the elementary grades but, unfortunately, this is often not taking place today. The reasons for this are varied, from not having enough time during the school day to teachers being uncomfortable with the subject. This paper reviews the literature and reports on methods, assessments and recommendations for the future.

The current state of elementary science education

In 2007, Inverness Research Associates briefed members of Congress about the need for improved elementary science education. The researchers found that due to No Child Left Behind (NCLB), instruction time for science had dropped by half between 2000 and 2007. Citing a Center for Education Policy study, they wrote, “According to the new survey, the average change in instructional time in elementary schools since the law’s enactment has been 140 additional minutes per week for reading, 87 additional minutes per week for math... (and)
75 fewer minutes for science per week.” (St. John, 2007)

The main problems that St John cites are the pressures to do well on NCLB tests and lack of teacher preparedness. The first factor stems from the reality that teachers and schools are graded by how well the students do on the tests. The teachers are forced to drill their students on the content of the tests and feel that they cannot take instructional time away from that. St John points out that reading about and writing about science would help the students to develop language arts skills and that a strong scientific background will help them to develop better reasoning skills. He recommends incorporating science into the language arts curriculum....

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