Compose your response to each question making sure to support your nresponses with appropriate outside sources formatted in APA style.
1. Title page with your contact information.
2. Detailed responses to each question.
3. Double spacing throughout.
4. Page numbers.
5. References (List of references used to support your responses. Please be sure to format according to APA guidelines).

Question #1
Given the history of the many different immigrant populations in the United States, policies were adopted to assist English learners in public schools as well as in protecting their rights. This same practice holds true for most minority populations who—at times—needed the government to step in to provide policy and guidelines for education.
Examine the following key legislative cases below that are monumental in protecting minority populations and thus—setting precedent for English learners in U.S. public schools:
1. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
2. Civil Rights Act, 1964
3. Bilingual Education Act, 1968, 1984
4. Lau v. Nichols, 1970
In an essay, describe the following for EACH of the legislative decisions or acts:
• What were the key factors involved in EACH of the legislative decisions or acts and which populations were involved?
• What were the outcomes, decisions, and policies that resulted from EACH?
• How do the decisions of the past impact English learners in today’s U.S. schools and how do the decisions influence programs in education?

Question #2
Reflect on the CALLA Method (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach) and the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol). Both are models of instruction that have been adopted by the Tennessee
Department of Education.
Describe each method in detail. Include:
• Basic components of each approach / method—be specific and descriptive
• Key features of each approach / method
• Process / procedure involved with each
• Instructional tools and/or instruments typically utilized with each
• Type of knowledge and/or skills that are typically targeted
• Subject area/s and proficiency level/s that are ideal for each approach / method
Writing your response:
1. First prepare a graphic organizer of the two methods. Be sure to include the key features above and fully address each.
2. Be as specific as possible using references for each method.
3. Include a summary following your organizer that presents a concise narrative of each method.
4. Next, explain the role of Language Learning Strategies in CALLA and provide an example of at least three types of strategies.
5. Then, explain the role of the following and provide an explanation of each as related to the SIOP:
A. Lesson Preparation
B. Building Background Knowledge
C. Comprehensible Input
D. Teaching Strategies
E. Interaction
F. Practice and Application
G. Lesson Delivery
H. Assessing Student Progress
6. Last, select one of the methods that best meets the needs of your students.
Provide a detailed rationale explaining why the method works best with your particular students.

Question #3: SPSE 6712 , SPSE 6715
SPSE 6712 required you to gather information in manner similar to what an ethnographer does while in the field. Reflect on your experience and address the following questions:
1. What is ethnography?
2. What is the role of ethnography in fieldwork?
3. Discuss the nature of the ethnography that you conducted in SPSE 6712 or SPSE
a. 6715. Who was involved? What did you actually do? How did this improve practice?
4. How did ethnographic practices and procedures assist you while conducting fieldwork in SPSE 6712 or SPSE 6715?
5. Cite at least three things that you learned that may be applied to teaching in the ESL setting while conducting ethnographic fieldwork in SPSE 6712 or SPSE 6715.

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Question 1
After independence and abolition of slave trade, the USA population included numerous immigrant groups with distinctive educational needs. Despite the call for equality, the minority groups suffered from lack of customized learning curriculums to meet their racial needs. As such, activists, largely from the minority populations sought for the policy exceptions and amendments to increases the efficiency of education system in serving the entire US population. The struggle took a course of legislative cases that influenced the USA education strategy. Four of the cases remain significant in protecting the privileges of the minority students across USA to date....
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