1    Answer the questions:
Part 1
Do you think there is a difference between the meaning of the word “standardization” and the word, “adjustment” as they are used in the health care professions?

Part 2
What do you think the possible impact on an epidemiologic study might be if we don’t adjust our measurements of disease outcomes to account for differences between our test and comparison populations?

2      Answer the questions:

Question 1: Interpret the chart in table 1 by describing in words what the numbers and indicators represent. Describe what is happening in both populations.
Question 2: Calculate the age-specific death rates for Table 1.
Question 3: Complete the table 2 utilizing direct standardization.
Question 4: Describe what Table 2 means.
Question 5: Complete Table 3 utilizing direct standardization.
Question 6: Describe what Table 3 means.
Question 7 :Why are the expected and observed deaths for Country A the same number in Table 3?
Question 8: The research needed to sufficiently prove that smoking causes lung cancer was a long, tough fight for health professionals and epidemiologists. From what you know about Hill’s Criteria for Causation, which criteria can you assume are met from the data shown in this case study and the understanding that older people and longer-term smokers have higher mortality rates than younger generations? Why
Question 9: Is it possible to use direct and/or indirect standardization for indicators other than age, such as gender? More men are diagnosed with lung cancer than women every year, so would it be possible to find an adjusted rate and standardized mortality ratio using gender strata rather than age? Why? In addition to your written answer, you may draw a table using fake data to further your point.

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Reflection on the principles of epidemiology

Part 1

There is no between difference between standardization and adjustments as used by health care professions. For example, Miquel (2014) explains that in age adjustment, which is also referred to as age standardization, a standard population must be chosen; this method enables the comparison of populations when the age descriptions differ. This is mostly evidenced in direct age adjustment where a similar age designed population is used as a benchmark. As for the indirect age adjustment, also known as indirect age standardization, instead of using one population design as a benchmark and applying other rates to it to evaluate expected events, fixed rates from another pop is used to each of the pops being matched to gauge standardized mortality ratios. It therefore comes to show that standardization and adjustments as used by health care profession are actually the same thing and therefore go together.

Part 2

The measurements...

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