Question

Does "race" exist?
Is it an outdated concept?
Is it a social construct or a biological reality?
What does the textbook say about the concept of race?

Your answer must include references from the book, and some other scholarly source (a book, a journal, or a website – not Wikipedia!) – and you must include a citation and reference in your post to show where the material was obtained. Even if it is from the textbook, you should include a citation and reference. Your answer should be at least 250 words in length.

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This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.

Race is a social construct that became “scientific” via biological analysis. Anthropology has a lot to do with that, thanks to the emphasis on craniometrical measurements in the 1800s to as a pseudo-scientific method to justify the differences between humans (Ripley 1899, Coates 2013). Contemporary naturalists designated race by morphology, geography, and heredity (Graves 2009). Later, the physical anthropologist Montague used the theory of natural selection to explain the genetic differences in human variation, pointing out that though certain groups, such as Sub-Saharan Africans, East Indians, and Australian aborigines all have dark skin, “they differ in other anatomical traits, such as body proportions, skull proportions, hair type, or ear wax (Graves 2009)....

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