Answer the following essay questions completely, using specific examples to illustrate your points.Each essay should be approximately 250-500 words (about 1-2 pages, typed double spaced with typical font). Be sure to use proper citations for every idea that is not your own, whether quoted or paraphrased.

1. Define social stratification. Compare stratification in our own society with that of India.

2. Compare and contrast the general features of band, tribe, chiefdom, and state political system, giving examples of each.

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Social stratification is the hierarchal ranking of social classes, grouped by similar socioeconomic conditions, within a society, in which one social class does not have access to the same resources, power, or status as another (Cancian 1976; Haviland et al. 2010). In a basic evolutionary sense, social stratification developed from a surplus of resources, especially those gained from food production as it improved with agricultural techniques, with the greater the surplus, the greater the stratification (Cancian 1976). Those with a higher social status evolved be those who have managed to live off the work of others, who later evolved to rank lower in the social stratification hierarchy (Cancian 1976).
Social exclusion derived from social stratification includes discrimination impacted by gender, ethnicity, class, and age, all of which may decrease opportunities for social groups to gain access to resources, such as housing, education, employment, healthcare, religion, and political participation (Silver 1994)....

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