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Station #3: LATE MIOCENE APES/HOMININS
Describe at least two examples... Describe how the Australopiths partly weaned us off fruit. What evolutionary traces from our Australopith ancestors can be found in our bodies?

1. Australopithecus afarensis (NOTE: Among the first apes to show a mixed C3/C4 dietary pattern)
2. Paranthropus (austral) NOTE: Massive jaws, huge flat cheek teeth and an 80% C4 diet)

Station#4: PREDATORS OF THE AFRICAN SAVANNAS:
Describe two examples of a predator skulls. Note the difference in snout forms (short vs. longer snout) and dental patterns: Short canine form, recurved incisor teeth for grasping: carnassial (blade shaped) cheek teeth for shearing meat.

1. Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)
2. Leopard (Panthera pardus)

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Section #3: LATE MIOCENE APES/HOMININS
The wear scratches of Australopithecus are longer and less wide showing the adaptability to feed on fruits more than meat. The dietary staples of these species were composed of less-hardened food items as depicted by the dental formation. Having been found in subtropical Africa, the adaptability to feed on fruits was enhanced by the grasses and sages that have C4 photosynthesis. The difference in dental proportions enhanced the capacity to feed on fruits which had crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods.

Some evolutionary traces shared between humans and Australopithecus ancestors include bipedalism – the ability to walk on two legs. This is evidenced by the structural...

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