1. Inertia is defined as a
A. force.
B. change in motion.
C. none of the above
D property of matter.

2. Earth moves about 30 km/s relative to the Sun. When you jump upward in front of a wall, the wall doesn't slam into you at 30 km/s because the wall
A. has too little gravity to influence you.
B. moves in the opposite direction to you.
C. and you move at the same horizontal speed, before, during, and after your jump.
D. has negligible inertia compared with the Sun.

3. If you drop an object, it will accelerate downward at a rate of 10 m/s2. If you instead throw it downward, its acceleration (in the absence of air resistance will be
A. less than 10 m/s2.
B. 10 m/s2.
C. greater than 10 m/s2.

4. A heavy object and a light object in a vacuum are dropped at the same time from rest. The heavy object reaches the ground
A. sooner than the light object.
B. at the same time as the light object.
C. later than the light object.

5. Which has the greatest mass?
A. a fluffed-up king-size pillow
B. a scrunched-up king-size pillow
C. an automobile battery
D. all about the same

6. Earth exerts a force on the Moon. These two bodies make up
A. one interaction.
B. two interactions.
C. multiple interactions.

7. Action and reaction pairs of forces always act on
A. the same body.
B different bodies.
C. either of these
D. none of the above

8. According to Newton, the greater the masses of interacting objects, the
A. less the gravitational force between them.
B. greater the gravitational force between them.
C. greater the force between them by the square of the masses.
D. greater the force between them by the square of the distance.

9. According to Newton, the greater the distance between gravitationally interacting objects, the
A. less the gravitational force between them.
B. more the gravitational force between them.
C. constancy of the force between them.

10. The Sun is spherical due to
A. Earth circling it.
B. Earth and Moon circling it.
C. gravitation.
D. none of the above

11. Nebular theory pertains to the formation of
A. the solar system.
B. a galaxy.
C. the asteroid belt.
D. the Earth.

12. Evidence of the solar wind on Earth is the
A. meteor showers in the upper atmosphere.
B. solar sunspots.
C. preponderance of hurricanes at lower latitudes.
D. higher ocean tides in winter.
E. Aurora Borealis.

13. The percentage of the Earth's surface covered by ocean is about
A. 50%.
B. 60%.
C. 70%.
D. 80%.
E. 85%.

14. The predominant gas in the atmosphere of Earth is
A. oxygen.
B. nitrogen.
C. water vapor.
D. carbon dioxide.
E. methane.

15. The number of moons in orbit around Mars is
A. zero.
B. one.
C. two.
D. three.

16. What is the predominant component of Jupiter's atmosphere?
A. hydrogen
B. helium
C. methane
D. ammonia

17. Which explanation best describes why Earth observers always see the same face of the moon?
A. The Moon's rate of spin matches the rate at which the Moon revolves around Earth.
B. The Moon does not rotate as it circles Earth.
C. We tend only to observe the Moon at night, not during the day.
D. Earth and Moon are partially gravity locked.

18. A small rock in interplanetary space is called a
A. meteor.
B. meteoroid.
C. meteorite.

19. Einstein theories tell us that the speed of light
A. depends on one's frame of reference.
B. is constant in all frames of reference.
C. provides accurate clocks.
D. slows in a transparent medium

20. Seasons here are Earth are a result of
A. the rotation of our planet about its axis.
B. the revolution of our planet around the Sun.
C. the movement of our planet within the Milky Way.
D. the tilt of Earth's axis.

21. The Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R )Diagram, an important tool of astronomers, relates stellar temperature to stellar
A. distance.
B. mass.
C. color.
D. density.
E. luminosity.

22. A black hole is
A. a region of space that is collapsed in on itself.
B. the result of the collapse of supergiant star.
C. likely found at the center of each spiral galaxy.
D. All of the above

23. The Big Bang
A. took place within space.
B. marked the beginning of space and time.
C. occurred as a result of disturbances within the Large Magellenic cloud.
D. took place within time.

24. An electron and a proton
A. attract each other.
B. repel each other.
C. attract or repel depending on distance.

25. Which of these does not have an electrical charge?
A. proton
B. electron
C. neutron
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

26. The Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R )Diagram, an important tool of astronomers, relates stellar temperature to stellar
A. distance.
B. mass.
C. color.
D. density.
E. luminosity.

27. The difference between lightwaves approaching and lightwaves receding is
A) when approaching, lightwaves have higher frequency; when receding their frequency is lower.
B) when approaching, lightwaves have lower frequency; when receding their frequency is higher.
C) the frequency of approaching lightwaves remain constant, while receding lightwaves are invisible.
D) There is no difference
28. How did Mr. Hubble calculate the age of the universe?
A) by measuring the rate of expansion of the universe
B) by looking at the age of the oldest stars
C) by measuring the redshift of stars within 360 degrees of the center of our galaxy
D) by measuring the rate of radioactive decay within the farthest galaxies

29. .Dark Matter is matter that
A) cannot be seen, felt, or measured.
B) cannot be seen or felt, but can be measured through its gravitational effects.
C) is Dark Energy's complement.
D) is found within a black hole.

30. The modern theory of dark energy arises from observations showing that
A) galaxies spin at slower than expected rates.
B) superclusters are collapsing.
C) the speed of light is not exactly constant.
D) galaxies are accelerating away from each other.

1. Distinguish between the concepts of mass and fundamental, why?
2. What is the difference between the geocentric and heliocentric solar system models?
3. What is the difference between a star and a planet?
4. What are the two types of planets found in our solar system?
5. Who was the first person to observe the phases of Venus?
6. We see some objects because they produce light. Why do we see things that emit no light?
7. Which type of mirror, first-surface or second-surface, is best for astronomy? Explain your answer.
8. Why is the Moon's synodic period longer than its orbital period?
9. On average, how often does solar activity peak?
10. Distinguish between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse, and the reasons for each.
11. How far is a light year?
Define: 1 AU
Calculate time it takes for light to reach the earth from the sun.
12. Give a short description of a comet that describes its nucleus, coma, and tail.
13. Which is the most common type of meteorites?
14. For a lunar eclipse to happen, what must the Moon's phase be?
15. Explain why the sky is blue.
16. In a double star system, what is the difference between the primary and the secondary?
17. How many basic classes of planetary nebulae do astronomers now recognize?
18. How was radioactivity first discovered?
19. What are the three types of high-energy radiation scientists identified?
20. Newton's law and Kepler's law? (Explain)

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