Atmospheric drag is proportional to density. How does the magnitude of atmospheric drag change
over a solar cycle at 100 km altitude?
2. The temperature of the thermosphere can reach 2000K. Why aren't astronauts cooked as they "walk"
3. The amount of photoionization in Earth's ionosphere depends on a number of factors. Neglecting
transport (the motion of ionized gas from one place to another) what are the most important factors
that determine the amount of photoionization in the ionosphere?
4. Describe how space weather impacts airlines.
5. The type of orbit (LEO, MEO, HEO, or GEO) a satellite is in depends on its purpose. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of LEO and GEO for communication and Earth-observing purposes?
6. The magnitude of gravitational force is
G m1 m2
), where G is the universal gravitational constant (6.67 x 10 11 m3 kg" 82). m and
m2 are respective masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them.
Mass of Earth: 6 X 1024 kg
Mass of the Sun: 2 X 1030 kg
Mass of the moon: 7.34 X 1022kg
Distance between Earth and Sun: 150 X 106 km
Distance between earth and the moon: 384, 400 km
What is the gravitational attraction of someone on Earth due to the Sun? How does this compare
with the gravitational attraction of the Moon?
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. How much kinetic energy does a spherical asteroid with a I
km diameter have if it is made out of iron (has density of about 8 kg m³) and hits Earth at a relative
velocity of 10 km 811 Convert your answer to megatons of TNT (1 megaton of TNT - 4.18 x 1013
8. A satellite re-entering Earth's atmosphere will suffer a radio communications blackout because of the
plasma created by the shock wave in front of it. If the satellite's radio operates at a frequency of 100
MHz, what is the minimum plasma density during the blackout?
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1. When the Sun is more active and adds more energy to the outer light layers of the atmosphere, they rise, so more dense layers rise too, and, in a sense the atmosphere swells. This affects satellites at LEO altitudes in that they experience a larger atmospheric drag during the higher solar activity times in the solar cycle, so their orbits need more frequent corrections.
2. The gas density in thermosphere is very small...