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1). The tank system shown below has three compartments (A, B, and C) separated by two membranes (X and Y). Initially, A, B, and C have the same volumes of the solutions shown in the figure and the membranes, X and Y, don’t allow anything to cross. Assume complete dissociation of solutes and that the solutes don’t contribute to the volumes of any compartment. a). Before anything crosses the membranes, the solution in A is hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic, or isoosmotic compared to B. (circle one) b). Before anything crosses the membranes, the solution in C is hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic, or isoosmotic compared to B. (circle one) c). The permeabilities of X and Y are suddenly changed to the following permeabilities. Circle the correct symbol to indicate if the heights of the fluid levels in Tube A, Tube B, and Tube C will Increase (↑), Decrease (↓), or Not Change (NC) as the system reaches a new equilibrium. Tube A Tube B Tube C i). X - permeable to H2O only Y - permeable to H2O only ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC ii). X - permeable to H2O and urea only Y - permeable to H2O and Ca++ only ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC iii). X - permeable to urea only Y - permeable to H2O and sucrose only ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC iv). X - permeable to H2O and urea only Y - permeable to H2O and urea only ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC ↑ ↓ NC d). For the permeabilities given in “iv”, what is the concentration of urea in compartment A at equilibrium? 2). An artificial nerve was developed in the shape of a circle. Assume the following: 1). It is made of seven axons running parallel to each other. 2). All the axons are identical (same diameter, length, threshold potential, conduction velocity, refractory periods, etc.). 3). The absolute refractory period for each axon is 1 msec. 4). Each axon runs around the circle and connects to itself (there is no beginning or end). 5). The action potential in each axon is recorded as a 1 millivolt event at each electrode. 6). The artificial nerve has a circumference of 60 millimeters. 7). The (-) stimulating and (-) recording electrodes are separated by 20 millimeters. 8). One recording electrode is displayed on channel 1, the other on channel 2. 9). Action potentials can travel both directions in an axon. AND HERE IS A HINT FOR ANSWERING THIS QUESTION - use the concepts from the “change in stimulus polarity” part of the sciatic nerve lab. a). For normal sciatic nerve axons (not presynaptic terminals), i). Which ion channel(s) go through all three states: Activation (opening the pore), Deactivation (closing the pore), and Inactivation (blocking the pore)? K+ Na+ Ca++ (circle all that do) ii). For the following, circle the best answer: What triggers Activation? depolarization repolarization time (circle one) What triggers Deactivation? depolarization repolarization time (circle one) What triggers the end of Inactivation? depolarization repolarization time (circle one) 2). continued b). A single supramaximal stimulus (high enough to initiate action potentials in all seven axons) is applied to the nerve for a duration of 0.1 msec. The data recorded from the channel 1 electrode is shown below: Channel 1 i). What is the delay on the stimulator set at? ______________ ii). Calculate the conduction velocity of the axons. Show your work to get credit. iii). What is the name of the event recorded at 2 msec? _____________________________________ iv). Why does the CAP at 4 msec have an amplitude of 5 mV (instead of 7 mV)? v). Why does the CAP at 6 msec have an amplitude of 2 mV? 2). continued again vi). On the figure below, draw what the data recorded from channel 2 will look like. Note - the time/div has been changed. Channel 2 c). Circle “T” or “F” to indicate if the following are True or False for normal frog sciatic nerve neurons. T F All “A-type” fibers in the sciatic nerve are myelinated. T F All “A-type” fibers in the sciatic nerve synapse at endplates. T F The sciatic nerve includes sensory neurons. T F All myelinated axons have nodes of Ranvier. T F Neurons with nodes of Ranvier spaced further apart will usually have slower conduction velocities. T F For a single neuron, a drug that causes a shorter absolute refractory (but doesn’t affect the relative refractory period) will result in a higher maximum action potential frequency when using an extremely high stimulus amplitude. T F For a single neuron, a drug that causes a shorter absolute refractory (but doesn’t affect the relative refractory period) will result in a higher maximum action potential frequency when using a stimulus amplitude at threshold. T F For a single neuron, an increased action potential duration would be likely to increase the absolute refractory period. T F For a single neuron, a drug that blocks some K+ channels would be likely to increase the absolute refractory period. T F If you stimulate an axon in the middle, an action potential will go both directions. T F For a single neuron, one of the reasons that the action potential is called “all or nothing” is because none of the neuron’s membrane will depolarize with a stimulus below threshold. T F If a drug completely blocks all voltage-dependent Na+ channels, a neuron will never be able to fire an action potential. For the following, assume that a drug which prevented Aδ neurons from firing action potentials was applied to a sciatic nerve. T F The stimulus required to reach threshold would decrease. T F The stimulus required to reach max CAP would decrease. T F The amplitude of the max CAP would decrease. 3). a). Fill in the following based on what I said in lecture. Use complete names. NMJ neurotransmitter _________________________________________________________________________________ NMJ postsynaptic receptor _____________________________________________________________________________ NMJ presynaptic calcium channel _______________________________________________________________________ Neuron going to NMJ _________________________________________________________________________________ Enzyme that breaks down the NMJ neurotransmitter _________________________________________________________ Enzyme that reforms the NMJ neurotransmitter _____________________________________________________________ Transporter that puts the NMJ neurotransmitter back into the vesicle (just write the abbreviation) _____________________ Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS? ______________________________________________________________ Neurotransmitter released onto the heart by the sympathetic nervous system _______________________________________ Neurotransmitter released onto the heart by the parasympathetic nervous system ___________________________________ What is edrophonium’s mechanism of action? ______________________________________________________________ What is atropine’s mechanism of action? __________________________________________________________________ b). A student performed one of the experiments we did in lab and got the following data. Is this data an example of facilitation or treppe? (circle one) Give two reasons why the data supports your answer: #1 _______________________________________________________________________________ #2 4). A skeletal muscle is hooked up to the same type of transducer that we used to do the frog ECG lab (see the diagram below). Supramaximal stimuli are used to produce single twitches with three different weights hanging on the muscle. Weight #3 (a total load of 30 grams) is just heavy enough to prevent the muscle from shortening during the twitch. Five grams is just enough weight to stretch the muscle until it hits the afterload support and is at a length of 27 mm. a). Which weight (#1, #2, or #3) will result in a twitch with the largest amount of shortening? _____ b). Will the twitch with weight #1 have a period of isometric contraction? yes or no (circle one) c). What is the value (in grams) of the active tension that will be developed at the end of the isometric phase of the contraction with weight #1? ________ d). Circle “T” or “F” to indicate if the following are True or False. T F Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are both striated. T F Skeletal muscle utilizes calcium ions to generate part of its action potential. T F Skeletal muscle utilizes calcium to trigger its contractions. T F Skeletal muscle is a “myogenic” type of muscle. T F During an isotonic contraction, a skeletal muscle’s sarcomeres will shorten. T F During an isotonic contraction, a skeletal muscle’s I bands will shorten. T F During an isotonic contraction, a skeletal muscle’s A bands will shorten. T F An increase in a skeletal muscle twitch duration will decrease the stimulus frequency at which summation occurs. T F During an isometric contraction, the maximum tension developed during a single twitch will be similar to the amount of tension developed during tetanus when a skeletal muscle is at its normal length. 4). continued e). Below are the passive and total length-tension curves for this muscle. i). Label the axes on the figure. Include actual numbers when possible. ii). Plot the twitches for weight #1 and weight #3. i). For rat uterus muscle, write the names of the following adrenergic receptors and which G-proteins they use. Receptor X causes relaxation - Name _________ G-protein _________ Receptor Y causes excitation - Name _________ G-protein _________ If the curves above were from a piece of uterus muscle, draw on the figure above what would happen to the passive and total tension curves if a drug was added that activated receptor X. j). Based on the methods we did in lab, list the four things I said you should measure about the contractions in the rat uterus experiment: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 5). a). Circle “T” or “F” to indicate if the following are True or False about a human heart. T F Contractile fibers are electrically connected to other contractile fibers by gap junctions. T F Contractile fibers are electrically connected to nodal fibers by gap junctions. T F Phosphorylating phospholamban will increase the activity of phospholamban. T F Phosphorylating phospholamban will increase SERCA2 activity. T F The tricuspid valve connects the right atrium to the left atrium. T F When the heart is operating normally, the left ventricle beats more often than the right ventricle. T F When the heart is operating normally, the left ventricle has a larger stroke volume than the right ventricle. b). Circle which was used during the Starling’s Law movie: frog rat mouse dog cat turtle sheep monkey human (circle one) Indicate if drugs that could do the following would be likely to Increase (I), Decrease (D), or Not Significantly Change (NC) the ECG intervals if given to the preparation used in the Starling’s Law movie. Assume that the only direct effects of the drugs are the ones listed. c). If the QRS complex shown below was recorded from a normal human. Which frontal lead was it most likely recorded with? __________________ What is the name of the wave labeled X? ____________________________ Which ventricular cardiac action potential phase is being recorded during the wave labeled X? 0 1 2 3 4 5 (circle one) Which part of the ventricles are generating the electrical event that is occurring during the wave labeled X? _________________ Which ventricular cardiac action potential phase is being recorded during the wave labeled Y? 0 1 2 3 4 5 (circle one) 6). a). For the way we did the ECG leads in the human ECG experiment in lab: For V1, which limb electrodes were plugged into the (+) input on the preamp? LA RA LL none (circle all that apply) For V1, which limb electrodes were plugged into the ground on the preamp? LA RA LL none (circle all that apply) For aVL, which limb electrodes were plugged into the (-) input on the preamp? LA RA LL none (circle all that apply) For aVL, which limb electrodes were plugged into the (+) input on the preamp? LA RA LL none (circle all that apply) For aVL, which limb electrodes were plugged into the ground on the preamp? LA RA LL none (circle all that apply) How did we get good electrode contact with the skin? ______________________________________________________ b). A group was measuring aVL in the lab and the PowerLab recording looked like this: The diagram below shows the connections and settings of their preamp during the recording. You are the TA and need to help them get better data. List the five preamp connections/settings from the diagram above that could be causing the flatline. Assume that the student is not dead. Warning - incorrect answers are subtracted. #1 __________________________________________________________________________________ #2 __________________________________________________________________________________ #3 __________________________________________________________________________________ #4 __________________________________________________________________________________ #5 __________________________________________________________________________________ 7). The normal tension curves and a pressure/volume loop for a left ventricle are shown below. a). Based on the diagram above: What is the value of the systolic blood pressure? __________________________________________________________ What is the value of the diastolic blood pressure? _________________________________________________________ What is the value of the preload volume of the left ventricle? ________________________________________________ What is the value of the volume when the left ventricle is at its afterload? ______________________________________ If the heart rate is 80 bpm, what is the value of the cardiac output? ____________________________________________ What is the approximate ventricular pressure when the mitral valve opens? _____________________________________ What is the approximate aortic pressure when the mitral valve opens? _________________________________________ On the diagram above, draw an arrow to the approximate time when atrial contraction begins. Label it “X”. b). During an experiment using the Starling preparation (as shown in the movie) a severe aortic stenosis was created. After 10 cardiac cycles, (assume that the stroke volume has returned to normal): i). Will the afterload be increased, decreased, or not changed? (circle one) Will the preload be increased, decreased, or not changed? (circle one) Will the maximum ventricular pressure be increased, decreased, or not changed? (circle one) ii). On the diagram above, draw what the new pressure/volume loop will look like after 10 beats. iii). On the new pressure/volume loop above, indicate when the murmur will Begin (label it “B”) and when the murmur will End (label it “E”). iv). On the diagram below, draw the sound of the murmur (like I did in lecture). v). In a person with severe aortic stenosis for a long time, which abnormal heart sound is most likely to occur? _____ Why? 7). continued c). The weird QRS vectorcardiogram loop shown below was recorded from a man. On the table, circle if each lead (I, II, aVR, and aVL) will have Q, R, and/or S waves and which wave will be biggest for that lead. Using the dashed line below as the baseline, draw what the Lead I QRS complex will look like. ---------------------------------------------------- d). There is no part “d”. 8). a). The calibration data with 10 gram weights put onto an isometric transducer is shown below. Write the calibration equation for use of this transducer during a fluid balance experiment. Assume that the preamp offset knob had to be adjusted during the experiment (just like we did in lab). The effects of Treatment A were tested in a fluid balance lab. The data are shown below: b). Assuming that Treatment A acts on vascular smooth muscle, it is likely that Treatment A caused VASOCONSTRICTION or VASODILATION? (circle one) Based on the data, Treatment A changes: i). Which term in Ohm’s Law (don’t pick “Q”)? _____________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) ii). Which term in the resistance equation (don’t pick “R”)? _________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) iii). Which term in Starling’s Equation (don’t pick “φ”)? ___________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) c). If Treatment A acts through one of the G-protein linked transduction pathways I covered in class: i). Which G-protein pathway could Treatment A be using? Gi Gs Gq (circle all that apply) ii). Which G-protein pathway is Treatment A unlikely to be using? Gi Gs Gq (circle all that apply) iii). List the complete names of the two neurotransmitters (not hormones) that I covered in class and the complete names of their receptors that, when activated on vascular smooth muscle, would generate this type of data. #1 neurotransmitter __________________________ receptor ________________________________ #2 neurotransmitter __________________________ receptor ________________________________ iv. List the complete names of the two hormones (not neurotransmitters) that I covered in class and the complete names of their receptors that, when activated on vascular smooth muscle, would generate this type of data. #1 hormone __________________________ receptor ________________________________ #2 hormone __________________________ receptor ________________________________ 8). continued d). If Treatment A acts by increasing the activation of one type of ion channel in smooth muscle membranes, what is the complete name of the ion channel that is most likely affected?__________________________ e). If Treatment A acts by decreasing the activation of one type of ion channel in smooth muscle membranes, what is the complete name of the ion channel that is most likely affected? __________________________ f). Now assume that Treatment A doesn’t act on smooth muscle (or cause something else to act on smooth muscle) and adding Treatment A only changes the physical characteristic of perfusate (the solution going into the frog) to cause these results. If this is the case, then Treatment A changes: i). Which term in Ohm’s Law (don’t pick “Q”)? _____________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) ii). Which term in the resistance equation (don’t pick “R”)? _________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) iii). Which term in Starling’s Equation (don’t pick “φ”)? ___________ Is it INCREASED or DECREASED? (circle one) g). There is no part “g”. 9). a). The following treatments were used in an experiment that tested the effects of each treatment on a person’s formation of urine. Each person had their volume of urine measured three hours after doing one of the treatments (nothing was eaten/drunk during the three hours). Assume each person is identical and has normal physiology with kidneys that function the way I described in lecture. Treatment A = not drink or eat anything for three hours Treatment B = drink water in a moderate amount (and not eat anything) Treatment C = drink water in a moderate amount + eat lots of salt Treatment D = drink water in a moderate amount + eat some glucose Treatment E = drink water in a moderate amount + eat some glucose + take some caffeine i). For evaluating the effects of water on urine formation, Circle which two treatments should be compared A B C D E (circle two) ii). For evaluating the effects of salt on urine formation, Circle which two treatments should be compared A B C D E (circle two) iii). For evaluating the effects of glucose on urine formation, Circle which two treatments should be compared A B C D E (circle two) iv). For evaluating the effects of caffeine on urine formation, Circle which two treatments should be compared A B C D E (circle two) v). Which of the treatments would be expected to cause the biggest increase the concentration of glucose in the urine? A B C D E none (circle one) Explain why you think this. b). Write the complete names of the following: Hormone that is the main controller of the urine osmolarity. _____________________________________________________ Name of the segment of the nephron where this hormone acts. ____________________________________________ Name of the cell type where this hormone acts. ________________________________________________________ Name of the channel that is activated by this hormone. __________________________________________________ Blocking the receptor for this hormone would be expected to INCREASE or DECREASE the urine osmolarity (circle one) Hormone that is the main controller of the plasma’s K+ concentration. _____________________________________________ Name of the segment of the nephron where this hormone acts. ____________________________________________ Name of the cell type where this hormone acts. ________________________________________________________ Name of the channel that is activated by this hormone. __________________________________________________ Blocking the receptor for this hormone would be expected to INCREASE or DECREASE the [K+ ]plasma (circle one) c). Write the abbreviations (that I used in lecture) of the following: Main glucose transporter in the nephron _________________________________________________________________ A sodium channel in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle __________________________________________ A sodium pump in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle ____________________________________________ 9). continued d). In the table below, circle the letter (A - increases, B - doesn’t change very much, or C - decreases) that best describes the change in the following filtrate parameters as the filtrate passes from the beginning to the end of each different segment of the nephron. Base your answers on what I said in lecture. Assume that the nephron is normal, both of the hormones from part “b” are present, and everything functions the way I said in lecture. e). Circle “T” or “F” to indicate if the following are True or False. T F The efferent arteriole takes blood towards the glomerulus. T F Each kidney contains more than one nephron. T F The blood vessels in the glomerulus are capillaries. T F A drug that inhibits NHE activity will cause the urine to become more acidic. T F Rat kidneys and frog kidneys look very similar. T F Urea is secreted into Bowman’s space. T F The urine flow into the bladder (ml/minute) is more than the glomerular filtration rate. T F A drop in blood pressure would increase the plasma levels of the hormones from part “b”. T F The main site of HCO3 reabsorption is in the proximal tubule.

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1. A) the solution in A is hypoosmotic compared to B.
B) the solution in C is isosmotic compared to B.
C) i) down NC NC
    ii) down up up
    iii) NC down up
    iv) down up up
D) concentration of urea is 33.33 mM

2. A) i) Na and K
    ii) Depolarization
         Repolarization
         Time

B) i) 2msec
    ii) Conduction velocity= distance (mm)/ time(msec)= 20mm/2msec...

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