Answer the following questions:

1. How are cultured ES cells the in vitro equivalent of cells found in the developing blastocyst and Explain how the induction of pluripotency is achieved in differentiated cells and discuss the potential uses of the derived cells ? The answer should include:
A description of events during pre-implantation development and properties of the cells, derivation of ES cell cultures (referring to mouse and human), definition and properties of ES cells (referring to key features including potency, key transcription factor expression, key antigen markers, techniques used to classify ES cells and functional tests),and how iPS cells are generated, how pluripotency is determined in these cells, changes in iPS cells in long term culture, potential uses of iPS cells(giving examples where possible).

2. How is homeostasis in the colonic crypt reliant upon a population of Lgr5+ cells? The answer should include: Discussion of homeostasis in the intestine, structure of the colonic crypt, and discussion of the 2 SC models in the crypt, indentifying the different cellular compartments of the crypt, Wnt signaling and its importance in the maintenance of crypt function.

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1) Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived   from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst,an early stage embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. Human ES cells are approximately 14 μm to 8 μm .two diploid ES cell lines have been cultivated.
Pre implantation development consists of stages of mammalian development, before the embryo implants into the mother’s uterus. It starts with fertilization of the egg by the sperm, and takes place as the embryo travels among the oviduct towards the uterus. It lasts 4.5 days in the mouse, and the best studied model, and 6 days in humans....

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