1. What is the context of the paper-background
2. Summarize big picture aspect-impact
3. What is the central hypothesis to be tested
4. FOR each figure-what are the conclusions based upon?
5. What are the controls used in each figure?
6. What is WRONG with the data/interpretation?
7. What experiment would you do to check?
8. What are the major conclusions/results
9. What other experiments do the authors propose?
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.1. What is the context of the paper- background.
• Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that causes a debilitating and often deadly form of diarrhea especially in the elderly with other health complications. This microbe is a persistent problem due to the natural resistance it exhibits against many antibiotics commonly used against other microbes in addition several strains have recently acquired resistance to antimicrobials typically used against it (Vancomycin and Metronidazole).
• This combination of factors makes hospital acquired infections more likely. When people are taking antibiotics for other infections they may subsequently acquire C. difficile and have an impoverished intestinal flora to mediate dominance of C. difficile in their gut.
• If it is true that normal flora weakened by antibiotic treatment does contribute to the virility of C. difficile then it is logical that replacement of the normal flora will help control the Clostridium infection.
• Faecal transplantation, collecting faecal matter from uninfected family relative volunteers and placing the extracted bacterial flora from the donor sample into the digestive tract of a patient has shown promise as an effective treatment for intractable C. difficile infections. However the timing required for acquiring a fresh sample, testing it and preparing it for transplantation is prohibitive and may affect the quality of the sample.
• Another study showed that processed frozen samples from unrelated healthy donors implanted in the colon are effective in curing the infection but the delivery method is unnecessarily inconvenient.
• The current study presents data on the effectiveness of a new procedure where previously processed and frozen donor faecal material is placed into capsules and given orally to the patient....
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