QuestionQuestion

The given paper is "Dealing with the Evolutionary Downside of CRISPR Immunity: Bacteria and Beneficial Plasmids"

1. What is the context of the paper-background
2. Summarize big picture aspect-impact
3. What is the central hypothesis to be tested
4. FOR each figure-what are the conclusions based upon?
5. What are the controls used in each figure?
6. What is WRONG with the data/interpretation?
7. What experiment would you do to check?
8. What are the major conclusions/results
9. What other experiments do the authors propose?

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1. What is the context of the paper-background?
One of the major methods through which bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is by exchanging genes with other bacteria. However this method of entry into the bacterium has been exploited by bacteria phage to enter and attack the bacteria. One class of genes used by bacteria to defend themselves use RNAi and are called Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats or CRISPR. Bacteria with functional CRISPR or similar systems are not able to accomplish conjugation – and those that have lost this mechanism are susceptible to attack. This paper reports a series of experiments designed to understand the potential costs to maintaining or excising the CRISPR gene.

2. Summarize big picture aspect-impact.
Understanding the weaknesses of antimicrobial resistant bacteria has become crucial in developing new forms of treatment. The conjugation system provides a novel and natural point of attack to treat bacterial infections.

3. What is the central hypothesis to be tested
Populations of bacteria can respond to phage attacks by spreading functional CRISPR-Cas genes through the population but can also respond to antibiotics by eliminating the CRISPR-Cas system in the population....

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