2. Explain what a complete carcinogen is (see Lesson 12 page 11 for further details).
3. Explain how 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) is converted to a carcinogenic agent by metabolic enzymes.
4. Explain why in humans, the arylamide AAF is genotoxic to bladder cells but not to liver cells.
5. Explain how inorganic compounds such as ionic Ni, Cd, and As induce cancer in humans.
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.To establish that PAHs require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic agents an experiment is designed as follows. To understand the role of PAH in carcinogenicity, the mice can be treated topically with a benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) alone and co-treatment with standard SRM 1597. The initiation–promotion of carcinogen can be done by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as the promoter. The results of incidence of papillomas per mouse will be compared to see the carcinogenic effect and further PAH–DNA adduct analysis of epidermal DNA by 33P-post-labeling will be analyzed to know the difference in PAH-DNA adduct in both groups up to 48 hr...
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