1. Use the Nernst Equation to determine the equilibrium potential for each of the following ion concentrations. Use 37°C for the temperature.
K+ 5 mM out 120 mM in
Na+ 140 mM out 10 mM in
Ca²+ 2 mM out 0.1 micromolar in
CI- 150 mM out 5 mM in
2. (a) Use the Nernst Equation to determine the equilibrium potential for K+ for each of the ion concentrations below.
K+ 1 mM out 100 mM in
K+ 2 mM out 100 mM in
K+ 4 mM out 100 mM in
K+ 8 mM out 100 mM in
K+ 16 mM out 100 mM in
K+ 32 mM out 100 mM in
(b) Plot the equilibrium potential for potassium (y axis) as a function of K+ concentration out for all of the above K+ concentrations. Make the graph in Excel, and turn in a hardcopy of this graph with this worksheet
3. (a) Use the Goldman Equation to determine the equilibrium potential given the following relative permeabilities for K+ and Na+. Use these ion concentrations for all of these calculations: K+ 5 mM out, 100 mM in; Na+ 150 mM out, 15 mM in.
K+ is 10-times more permeable than Na+
K+ and Na+ are equally permeable
Na+ is 10-times more permeable than K+
K+ is 100-times more permeable than Na+
(b) Plot the expected equilibrium potential (y axis) as a function of the ratio of K + to Na+ permeability (x axis) for each of the above relative permeabilities. Make the graph in Excel, and turn in a hard copy of this graph with this worksheet.
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