This chapter is aimed at summarising the project’s main conclusions, discuss the conclusions in a critical manner and integrate these discussions into the background of the research field that has been mentioned in the introduction section.
A thorough scientific explanation of your findings and what the implications of these are will be expected. A mere recapitulation of the results is not acceptable and will be penalised.
If appropriate, the advantages/disadvantages of the methodology and alternative methods could be included as well as the limitations/strengths of the techniques/sampling procedures and their effect on the generalisability and validity of the results. Comparison with published results and discussion of any discrepancies that have arisen should be mentioned as well as suggestions for further work.
A thorough and highly detailed explanation of the results and conclusions. The discussion is used to convey the advanced understanding of the scientific area you have acquired and to show your appreciation for its importance. Comments on strengths and limitations of the thesis research, discuss any potential applications of the research findings and provide an analysis of possible future research directions in the field, drawing on the work of the thesis.
This chapter should end with conclusions regarding goals or hypotheses of the thesis that were presented in the Introduction, and the overall significance and contribution of the thesis research.
1. Interpret and explain your results
2. Answer your research question
3. Justify your approach
4. Critically evaluate your study

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Dental caries and periodontitis are oral cavities infectious diseases that are widespread in many countries regardless of the age, gender or nation. The Streptococcus mutans are one of the main pathogens causing these infections by forming biofilms at the tooth surface and gingival tissue
Many studies have investigated the antibacterial activity of propolis against Gram-positive bacteria S. mutans; however, the role of propolis as anti-biofilm treatment is less clear
In this study, the effects of the propolis tincture on planktonic and biofilm forming S. mutans in the presence or absence of artificial saliva were investigated. It was verified that 0.4% concentration of propolis was the lowest concentration that is effective against planktonic S. mutans. The number of viable bacteria was reduced significantly with increasing concentration of propolis (0.6% - 1%) and longer exposure time. On the other hand, in the presence of artificial saliva, exposure time and different concentration of propolis had no significant effect on the number of viable free-floating S. mutans. The formation of biofilm was inhibited by the higher concentrations of propolis (0.4% and 0.6%) in the absence of artificial saliva. The bactericidal effects were more pronounced in the samples with 10 µl of culture in comparison to the samples with 100 µl of the culture of S. mutans. However, in the presence of artificial saliva, the different propolis concentrations showed no significant effect on the biofilm formation.
Dental caries and periodontitis are oral cavities infectious diseases that are widespread in many countries, regardless of the age, gender or nationality. The progress in the development of new anti-biofilm treatments has been made, but since the most of anti-microbial agents are not suitable for long-term use due to toxicity and side effects, the need for natural anti-biofilm agents
have arisen. One such agent is propolis, a natural resinous substance produced by honeybees which has cytostatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity Streptococcus mutans, Gram-positive bacteria was chosen for investigation in this study mainly because S. mutans represent the main colonizer of the dental plaque responsible for early biofilm formation.
Currently, several methods, such as agar dilution, disc diffusion, and broth microdilution, are used for measurements of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria to propolis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibacterial activity of propolis tincture on Streptococcus mutans ATCC®33535TM strain were tested using the agar dilution method, although this method is labor intensive and time-consuming...

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