1) Submit a 7 - 10 double-spaced typed paper, size 12 font.
2) You must cite referenced sources appropriately
3) Identify and discuss ethical considerations
4) Elaborate on the broader global impacts of these challenges from a scientific perspective
Write a report and make a Powerpoint presentation on Imaging enzyme associated with human health with PET.
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Biological diseases are imbalances of the metabolic homeostasis, and one of the most useful ways of identifying the mechanism disturbance is the use of techniques like the Positron Emission Tomography or PET. This process provides excellent in-depth information and is successfully utilized in different clinical conditions including neurological disorders, cancer, malignant lesions, and it allows identification of the disease, differentiation of benign and malignant tissues as well as an examination of all organs and helps in determining therapeutic procedures. PET uses a radiolabelled precursor that is administered into the patient intravenously and the positrons emitted from the atoms in the tissue of the patient upon interacting with the probe produces the emission of electrons that are analyzed to develop a signal and analysis. The use of specific enzymes is essential for the process since the metabolism depends on the activity of the enzymes. So, tagging particular enzymes with functional groups that can capture the PET isotopes are utilized for useful positron emission tomography. PET system used for man can be correlated with a micro-PET system in mice, and it has facilitated assays involving molecular imaging for metabolism as well as gene transduction and expression. PET reporter assays are essential tools for the expression of the therapeutic and endogenous genes at the temporal level as well as their localization. Different enzymes necessary for the metabolic activity like are utilized for identification of functional attributes of diseased tissue and systems.
Medical imaging is an essential component of diagnostics of different internal conditions of the body, its comparison with standard features that enhances the diagnostic capacity and allows a more data or evidence-based and scientifically designed mode of treatment for the patient, be it with noninvasive procedures or surgical means. The process of medical imaging is based on the use of the different frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum and provides information on either the anatomical or functional characteristics. Positron Emission Tomography belongs to the nuclear medicine diagnostics technology associated with the application of ‘unsealed radioisotopes or radiopharmaceuticals in clinical application. In this method, a radiolabelled tracer or a radiopharmaceutical probe (usually oxygen -15, fluorine-18, carbon 11 or nitrogen- 13) is given intravenously to the patient, and the nucleus of the probe emits positron or positively charged electrons.(1)
The positron impacts with the electrons in the tissue and energy are produced as two photons. The photons released are detected by the PET cameras that depend on the scintillation crystals placed around the patient’s body which is converted into an electrical signal that is decoded analyzed and produced as PET scan image. Usually, radiolabelled glucose (18-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG)(Fig1a,1b) is used in the process and can detect the metabolic conditions by measuring the glucose utilization as well as blood flow, oxygen consumption, transmission of neurotransmitters, specific enzymes...
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