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Proteins are composed of amino acids and can be characterized by their shape, size, biological activity, amino acid composition and electrical charge. Different techniques are used to determine these properties of proteins or to use these properties to isolate proteins from mixtures. For example if a protein is an enzyme then we would use an enzyme assay to determine how quickly the protein converts it’s substrate into products (Groves 1997). If we wanted to know the shape of a protein we might use x-ray crystallography....