Study1. Molecular Evolution of Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) Strains from Patients and Hospital Environment in a Prolonged Outbreak
Question 1- How does this study fit into the field of molecular evolution?
Question 2- write a brief summarize of the study conducted, include the following elements: problems or questions being addressed, or hypotheses being tested: organisms studied; type(s) of data used; general results; and conclusion. While writing the summary be sure to include the very specifically how phylogenetic analysis is being used in the study.
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.Q1. This article by Buhl is a study involving phylogenetic analysis of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by protein enrichment and functional enrichment involving spatial as well as temporal changes in the genome over a period of 4 years.
Q2. In this study, the authors collected 100 strains of XDR-PA from two nearby hospitals in Germany where a long outbreak occurred during a period of 4 years. Authors hypothesized that since these strains were obtained from hospitals in close proximity to each other, there was high probability that these strains were monoclonal in origin. Authors also hypothesized that genomic variations leading to molecular evolution would have happened during 4 yrs for selection of strains better in adaptability to the hospital environment and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures.
Whole-genome sequencing was performed on the samples collected from patients as well as the premises of the hospitals such as washbasin, toilet, etc. A core genome maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis was performed by consideration of recombination events by Gubbins (2.1.0) software. Genome annotation was performed by Prokka (version 1.11). For temporal molecular evolution the samples were divided into early (day1 to day 322), middle (day 628-day1,139) and late (day 1, 140 – 1, 398) time periods of sampling and protein enrichment were performed by BLASTX.
The core genome contained Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in1.7% of the bases, which is a very high rate, thus excluding the monoclonal origin. Upon phylogenetic analysis, the genomes (86 out of 100) were clustered into two major group...
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