1. Describe Hyostylic jaw suspension and Holostylic jaw suspension ...

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1. Describe Hyostylic jaw suspension and Holostylic jaw suspension
2. What is the special characteristics of the shark’s visual system?
3. Describe the difference between first elasmobranchs and modern sharks.
4. Describe different functions of the shark’s teeth with example.
5. How skates are distinguished from rays in the relation to the body formation?

Multiple choices
1. Which group of fish have placoid scales or dermal denticles?
A) Agnatha
B) Chondricthyes
C) Osteichthyes

2. The tissues of a shark are isosmotic with seawater because of the accumulation of urea in body tissues.
A) True
B) False

3. The jaw suspension in elasmobranchs is:
A) Autodialystic
B) Amphistylic
C) Autostylic
D) Hyostylic

4. In hyostylic jaw suspension, upper jaw is fused with the skull and other jaw is attached directly with it.
A) True
B) False

5. Broad tooth plates, big head and a long tail are the features of .
A) Neoselachi
B) Holocephali

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Questions:
1. Describe Hyostylic jaw suspension and Holostylic jaw suspension
Answer – Hyostylic jaw suspension is generally found in elasmobranchs like sharks, rays and skates. This type of jaw suspension allows movement of the upper jaw independent of the skull. The lower jaw is attached to the hyomandibular cartilage of 2nd hyoid arch. This results in greater suction and precision in feeding.
In the case of holostylic jaw suspension, the upper jaw is fused with the skull with the lower jaw attached directly with it. In this case hyoid arch is not involved in attachment of jaw suspension and movement of jaw; instead it is a typical branchial arch. This type of jaw suspension is seen in Holocephali and lungfishes.

2. What is the special characteristics of the shark’s visual system?
Answer – The shark’s visual system is quite well developed, especially at low sunlight intensities. This can be attributed to the fact that they have many rod cells in their retina. Additionally, located behind the retina is tapetum lucidum which is comprised of cells with plate-like crystals of guanine....

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