Amoeba Sisters Video Recap: ​Mutations 1. What is a ​mutation...

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Amoeba Sisters Video Recap: ​Mutations 1. What is a ​mutation​? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. A specific part of a ​nucleic acid ​(such as DNA or RNA) experiences a mutation that could lead to a different protein produced. View the illustration below of DNA. Which part of the DNA experiences the mutation? ____________________________________________________ 3. On the DNA illustration, draw an ​arrow ​to show ​where ​the answer to #2 could be located. Mutations can be harmful, helpful, or neutral in their effect. A ​silent mutation tends to have a neutral effect as it ​does not result in coding for a different amino acid.​ Using your mRNA codon chart, give another mRNA codon that this CUU could mutate to and ​still code for leucine. 4. The mRNA codon ​CUU could mutate to ​C________ and ​still ​code for leucine, which would not change the amino acid. 5. Which type(s) of organism(s) can experience a mutation? Mark any that apply with an ​X​. _____ Animals (this includes humans) _____ Archaea _____ Bacteria _____ Fungi _____ Plants _____ Protists 6. Even a ​gene mutation ​that is a ​point mutation​, meaning it affects one nucleotide base, can still make a major change Consider the below information for normal hemoglobin: Portion of Hemoglobin DNA mRNA Amino Acids GGA CTC CTC CCU GAG GAG Proline-Glutamic Acid- Glutamic Acid Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by a ​point mutation known as a ​substitution. ​Show what would occur ​if the ​first ​T (“thymine”) DNA base​ in the portion shown above experienced a mutation with a substitution of ​A (“adenine”). Sickle Cell Hemoglobin: Portion of mutated hemoglobin DNA:​______________________________________ mRNA​:_____________________________________ Amino Acids​:________________________________ 7. An ​insertion or deletion ​can result in a ​frameshift mutation ​. To demonstrate this, complete the following. Note: You will need a codon chart. Normal Strand: DNA: GCA ATG CAC mRNA:​ ________________________________________ Amino Acids​: ____________________________________ Deletion (causing a frameshift): Taking out the first ​“G”​ in the original DNA above results in: DNA: ​CAA​ ​TGC​ ​AC mRNA​:__________________________________________ Amino Acids​:____________________________________ How did the frameshift change the amino acids? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. ​Check your understanding! Mark any that are ​correct with an ​X​. _____Mutations are random. _____Mutations are mostly beneficial and useful for an organism. _____Mutations can occur in both DNA and RNA, which are nucleic acids​. _____Mutations can only occur during interphase​. _____Not all genes code for proteins. _____Not all genes are “turned on” at a given time. _____​Substitution ​mutations typically result in a ​frameshift mutation​. _____Mutations can be genetically inherited​. Review the Structure of DNA 1. On the image above, label the: ● Phosphates ● Deoxyribose ● Hydrogen Bonds ● Each of the four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine 2. The process by which DNA makes a copy is called ____________________________________ 3. What two scientists are credited with establishing the structure of DNA? ___________________________ 4. What is the shape of a DNA molecule? ______________________________________________ 5. The two sides of the molecule are said to be "antiparallel." Carefully examine the image above. What does antiparallel mean? ______________________________________________________________________ ​(You will need to create a text box for each answer in order to label the picture below) Review: Transcription and Translation 1. _________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________ 9. What is the role of mRNA in the process? 10. What is the role of tRNA in the process? 5. _________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________ 11. How does the ribosome know the sequence of amino acids to build? 12. What is the difference between a codon and an anticodon? 13. Where does transcription take place? Where does translation take place? 14. Summarize the relationship between proteins and genes. We have learned about DNA, traits, genes, alleles, chromosomes, etc. What we haven’t learned is HOW a gene is expressed, or shown in an organism. Protein synthesis​ is a term that means making ​protein​. The recipe for p​ rotein synthesis uses ingredients like​ mRNA, tRNA, and amino acids​ as well as a special piece of equipment called a r​ ibosome. As stated in the DNA notes,​ Transcription​ is when RNA is made from DNA. Translation​ is the process of ​translating​ the sequence of a messenger RNA (m​ RNA​) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during p​ rotein synthesis​. Transcription Practice Problems: Transcribe the DNA into RNA G -> C C -> G T -> A A -> U Example: DNA : G T A C G C G T A T A C C G A C A T T C mRNA: C A U G C G C A U A U G G C U G U A A G 1. DNA: A T A C G A A A T C G C G A T C G C G G C G A T T C G G mRNA: ​U A U G C U ​2.​ ​ DNA: T T T A C G G C C A T C A G G C A A T A C T G G mRNA: DIRECTIONS: Fill in the missing letters on the line below the DNA code, the first 6 are done for you: ​3. DNA: C A C G T C A A T C C G C G G G C C T A A A T A C mRNA:

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