Question 5: READ paper and Answer Slutsky et al, 2010. Enhancement...

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Question 5: READ paper and Answer
Slutsky et al, 2010. Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium. 65: 165.

5.1 LTP (10pt)
Fig. 5C and D show the effect of long-term magnesium supplementation (MgT) on hippocampal LTP. Based on what you learned in class, do these results surprise you? Explain and justify your response. (roughly 2 sentences)

5.2 Pairing protocol (10pt)
Technically, they did not use a traditional LTP induction protocol to produce Fig. 5C and D. Instead they “paired” stimulation of pre- and post-synaptic cells: the pre-synaptic cell was stimulated, and then the post-synaptic cell was stimulated 10ms after the EPSP. What do you predict might have occurred in the control rats if they had done this protocol backwards, with the post-synaptic cell stimulated first? Justify your response. (roughly 1-2 sentences)

5.3 Water maze (12pt)
What do Fig. 3A-C and E-G tell you about how spatial learning in young and old rats? More precisely, what do their experiments tell you about:
- How learning differs between young and old rats normally;
- How learning differs between 1 hour and 24 hours normally;
- How learning differs with magnesium supplementation.
In your response, refer to specific pieces of data in the graphs. (roughly 3-6 sentences)

5.4 Increased p-CAMKII (10pt)
Fig. 4C shows an increase in NMDAR levels in rats treated with long-term magnesium supplementation. Why does Fig. 4D show increases in p-CamKII and p-CREB levels but not CamKII or CREB levels? Justify your response with the molecular mechanism for how the increases occurred. (roughly 3-6 sentences)

5.5 AMPARs (10pt)
Considering the results in Fig. 5C and D, would you expect an increase in AMPARs overall? Justify your response. (roughly 2-3 sentences)
5.6 Pre-synaptic NMDARs (10pt)

At some synapses, there are NMDARs at the presynaptic terminal. How would activating these, for example by delivering a burst of action potentials presynaptically, alter neurotransmitter release? Justify your response. (roughly 1 sentence)

5.7 Synaptic facilitation (8pt)
In Fig. 5B, the scientists claim to measure synaptic facilitation. How do they know that it’s synaptic facilitation? Justify your response. (roughly 1 sentence)

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Question 5: READ paper and Answer
Slutsky et al, 2010. Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium. 65: 165.

5.1 LTP (10pt)
Fig. 5C and D show the effect of long-term magnesium supplementation (MgT) on hippocampal LTP. Based on what you learned in class, do these results surprise you? Explain and justify your response. (roughly 2 sentences)
The results demonstrate that long-term changes are based on synaptic strength which are the cellular basis for information storage and memory. These results are not surprised because the long-term potentation (LTP) is due to strong connections between neurons as consequence of a frequent activation (brain changes due to experience). In fact, the MgT treatment did not have affect on single AP (action potential) but did with bursts (many Aps).

5.2 Pairing protocol (10pt)
Technically, they did not use a traditional LTP induction protocol to produce Fig. 5C and D. Instead they “paired” stimulation of pre- and post-synaptic cells: the pre-synaptic cell was stimulated, and then the post-synaptic cell was stimulated 10ms after the EPSP. What do you predict might have occurred in the control rats if they had done this protocol backwards, with the post-synaptic cell stimulated first? Justify your response. (roughly 1-2 sentences)...

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