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There process of growing grapes from planting, pruning to harvesting is called viticulture and there are four different ways by which one can grow grapes - conventional, sustainable, organic, and the most controversial one biodynamic viticulture (Chambers and Pretorius, 2010). Basically, conventional agriculture makes use of chemicals to eradicate pests and diseases and manufactured fertilisers to overcome soil nutrient deficiencies. Conventional agriculture is designed to maximize yields, produce disease-free fruits, and minimize labor costs which will ultimately increase profitability. However the indiscriminate use of these lethal chemicals over the last 50 years has resulted to the degradation and pollution of hectares upon hectares of vineyards. Chemical run off from fertilisers has also caused pollution of rivers and aquifers in surrounding areas. Furthermore, chemical tests of wine coming from conventional vineyards also showed that there can still be residues present in the wine despite passing the “safe levels” prescribed by law....
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