Cell Structure and Cell Function

1. According to the cell membrane structure
a. Protein molecules function as carrier molecules
b. There is a double protein layer
c. There are fats floating in the protein layer
d. Hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids are exposed to the outside of the cell

2. The ultimate control center of the cell is the
a. Cytoplasm
b. Ribosomes
c. Nucleus
d. Endoplasmic reticulum

3. The nucleolus of a cell is a
a. Structure containing DNA and is found in the cytoplasm
b. Structure containing RNA and is found in the nucleus
c. Rod shaped organelle found near the nucleus
d. Site of carbohydrate synthesis

4. The antibiotics such as streptomycin and neomycin are thought to associate irreversibly with the ribosomes in bacteria and thus disrupt their normal functioning. These antibiotics destroy bacteria in which way?
a. Form toxins with inhibit bacterial metabolism
b. Prevent them from reproducing normally
c. Increase their respiration to an abnormal rate
d. Prevent the synthesis of proteins

5. Which of the following is responsible for making proteins?
a. Chromosomes
b. Lysosome
c. Mitochondria
d. Ribosomes

6. Which of the following does not describe or pertain to the endoplasmic reticulum.
a. Found within the nucleus and cytoplasm
b. Network of tube like channels in the cytoplasm
c. Surface usually peppered with ribosomes
d. Cytoplasmic channels with are membrane lined

7. The golgi body appears to function as a
a. Secretory and packaging organelle
b. Center of energy production
c. Source of DNA
d. Mechanism for transferring genetic material

8. Mitochondria have been called the "powerhouse of the cell" because they
a. Are attached to the golgi body
b. Are the centers for making ATP
c. Absorb energy from the sun
d. Are centered in the cell's nucleus

9. What would happen if all of the mitochondria were removed from the cell?
a. Energy metabolism of the cell would sharply decline
b. Regulation of diffusion in the cell would be lost
c. Reproductive ability of the cell would be lost
d. RNA in the cell would be destroyed

10. Which of the following is rich in hydrolytic enzymes?
a. Lysosomes
b. Nucleoli
c. Golgi body
d. Mitochondria

11. You are asked to classify cell organelles on the basis of their principle functions. One category you set up is for organelles whose chief function concerns cell division. Which of the following is most likely representative of this category?
a. Lysosome
b. Centriole
c. Mitochondria
d. Ribosomes

12. Assume new techniques are developed with permit removing from a cell any desired parts or materials without killing the cell. If the centrioles were removed from a cell, the cell would then not have
a. Chromosomes
b. Mitochondria
c. Spindle fibers
d. Ribosomes

13. Which of the following is not an organelle?
a. Centriole
b. Golgi body
c. DNA
d. Mitochondria

14. There are structures in the nucleus that consists of DNA and histones. These are
a. Mitochondria
b. Chromosomes
c. Centrioles
d. Golgi bodies

15. Which of the following structures are not correctly matched with their description?
a. Cilia - projections from the cell surface that move materials
b. Microtubules - hollow tubules composed of tubulin
c. Flagella - short projections from the cell surface that move materials
d. Cilia and flagella - contain microtubules

16. Which of the following cells would have the largest number of mitochondria?
a. Bone cells
b. Fat cells
c. Muscle cells
d. Skin cells

17. Phagocytic WBC would have the largest amount of
a. Mitochondria
b. Nucleoli
c. Microtubules
d. Lysosomes

18. The cell that produces large amounts of lipoproteins for secretion from the cell would have large numbers of
a. Golgi bodies
b. Ribosomes
c. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
d. all the above would be present

19. A poison which interferes with the synthesis of proteins would affect the
a. Golgi body
b. Mitochondria
c. Ribosomes
d. Lysosomes

20. Which of the following is not a function of the lysosomes?
a. Digestion of bacteria
b. Break up worn out organelles
c. Fighting disease
d. Protein synthesis

21. Organelles involved in the synthesis, packaging, and transport of proteins in cells are (in order)
a. Ribosomes, mitochondria, nuclei
b. Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies
c. Microfilaments, nucleus, ribosomes
d. Ribosomes, golgi bodies, lysosomes

22. lons and molecules in solution are in a state of random motion. This concept allows us to explain how a lump of sugar dissolves and eventually is evenly distributed throughout a given container. This process is called
a. Active transport
b. Pinocytosis
c. Diffusion
d. Osmosis

23. Which of the following is the best description of osmosis?
a. Diffusion of water from a higher to a lower concentration
b. Diffusion of water from a higher to lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane
c. Diffusion of water from a higher to a lower concentration through a freely permeable membrane
d. Random movement of molecules due to their kinetic energy

24. Two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a cell membrane which is freely permeable to both solutes and water. At equilibrium, after a time
a. The concentration of water but not solutes will be the same on both sides of the membrane
b. The two solutions will have the same concentration
c. The two solutions will have changed but will not be equal in concentration
d. The number of solute molecules and water molecules on both sides of the membrane will be equal

25. Pinocytosis and phagocytosis are accomplished by the
a. nucleus
b. cell membrane
c. mitochondria
d. golgi body

26. A RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution. In which one of the following sketches do the arrows most closely approximate the direction(s) and the amount of water movement?
a. RBC O <-------
b. RBC O ------->
c. RBC O ----><----

d. RBC O ---->

27. A 10% salt solution is injected into a rat's bloodstream. Compared to the rat's blood which contains 0.9% salt, the 10% salt solution is
a. Isotonic to the rat's blood
b. Hypertonic to the rat's blood
c. Hypotonic to the rat's blood

28. Substances sometimes require energy (ATP) to move through cell membranes. This movement is
a. Osmosis
b. Active transport
c. Facilitated diffusion
d. Diffusion

29. The cytoplasm of a cell contains a salt concentration of 0.5%. Which of the following statements is true if such a cell, placed in a dilute solution containing 0.1%, still takes in the salt ions?
a. The process of moving slat ions is by active transport
b. The process of moving salt ions requires the cell to expend energy
c. This process of moving salt ions is by osmosis
d. Both a and b are correct

30. Two cells of the same kind have the same concentration of substances in their cytoplasm. Cell A is placed in a 2% glucose solution and cell B is placed in a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is correct?
a. Cell A will swell more than cell B
b. Cell B will swell more than cell A
c. Both cells will increase in size at the same rate
d. Both cells will decrease in size at the same rate

31. The injection of large quantities of distilled water into a person's veins would cause many of the RBC to
a. Shrink
b. Swell and burst
c. Agglutinate
d. Carry more oxygen

32. If 0.9% NaCl were isotonic to a cell, then which statement is correct?
a. 0.9% would also be hypotonic
b. 0.9% would also be hypertonic
c. 1.0% would be hypertonic
d. 1.0% would be hypotonic

33. A slice of potato place in cold water becomes very stiff and hard after several hours because
a. Water has passed into the potato cells to produce hypotonic conditions
b. Water has passed out of the potato cells
c. Cellulose synthesis has been stimulated
d. Salt has entered the cells of the potato

34. When a substance like sodium ions moves from a region of low concentration to an area of high concentration
a. Diffusion has occurred
b. Osmotic pressure builds up
c. The cell bursts
d. A protein carrier and energy is needed

35. Children with PKU are unable to properly metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Toxic waste products that impair the development of the nervous system accumulate when this common amino acid is included in their diet. Therefore, PKU children should avoid consuming all of these except
a. Nutrasweet
b. Equal
c. Hamburgers and milk
d. Sucrose

Matching Key:
a. Simple Diffusion
b. Osmosis
c. Facilitated Diffusion
d.Active Transport
e. Pinocytosis

36. The rapid movement of glucose across a cell membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration _______

37. Molecules move from a greater to lesser concentration because of random motion _________

38. The accumulation of sodium outside a cell and potassium inside a cell __________

39. The movement of oxygen from the alveoli air sacs of the lungs to the blood __________

40. The formation of a lipid containing vacuole at the cell membrane ___________

41. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane ____________

a. golgi body
b. mitochondria
c. nucleus
d. smooth ER
e. ribosomes

42. Controls all cell activities and contains DNA ________

43. Synthesizes lipids and detoxifies chemicals __________

44. Involved in protein synthesis & found on the rough ER _________

45. Packages digestive hydrolytic enzymes __________

46. Makes energy for the cell __________

47. Solution A and Solution B are separated by a selectively membrane. Solution A contains 5% NaCl dissolved in water. Solution B contains 10% NaCl dissolved in water. Which of the following statements is true regarding this situation?
a. Solution A has the higher osmotic pressure because it has a greater concentration of solute.
b. Solution B has the higher osmotic pressure because it has a greater concentration
c. Solution A has the higher osmotic pressure because it has a greater concentration of solvent
d. Solution B has the higher osmotic pressure because it has a greater concentration of solvent

48. Solution A contains 5% NaCl dissolved in water. Solution B contains 10% NaCl dissolved in water. Which of the statements below best describes the concentrations of these solutions?
a. Solution A is hypertonic to Solution B
b. Solution B is hypertonic to Solution A
c. Solutions A and B are isotonic
d. Solution B is hypotonic to Solution A

49. RBC membranes are not normally permeable to NaCl and maintain an intracellular concentration of NaCl of 0.9%. If these cells are placed in a solution containing 9% NaCl, what would happen?
a. Nothing, because the membrane is not permeable to NaCl
b. Water will enter the cell because the intracellular fluid has a higher osmotic pressure
c. The cell will undergo hemolysis due to membrane damage from the 9% NaCl solution
d. The cell will undergo crenation because the extracellular solution has a higher osmotic pressure

50. Cells try to move Na+ from the cytoplasm to the outside of the cell where the Na+ concentration is 14 time higher than in the cytoplasm. This means Nations are moved out of the cell by
a. Simple diffusion
b. Facilitated diffusion
c. Osmosis
d. Active transport

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Q.1 A
Q.2 C
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Q.5 D
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