Question

Problem 1:
a. Define each of the following: analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures.
b. Which of the structure(s) above suggests a shared common ancestor and which one(s) do not?
c. Using your knowledge of evolution, explain how two species could have analogous structures.
d. Using your knowledge of evolution, explain why an organism would have a vestigial structure.

Problem 2:
In a population of 100 four-o'clock flowers there are 40 red-flowered plants (CRCR), 38 pink-flowered plants (CRCW), and 22 white-flowered plants (CWCW) what is the frequency of the CW allele in this population? Show your work, please.

Problem 3:
A gene that affects susceptibility to a degenerative brain disease has two alleles, R and r. In a population, 16 people have the genotype RR, 92 have genotype Rr, and 12 have genotype rr. Is this population evolving? Explain. Show your work, please.

Problem 4:
a. Besides mutations, name 4 different things that could cause the allele and genotype frequencies to change in a population.
b. Pick one of the four things that could cause the allele and genotype frequencies to change and define it.

Distinguish genetic drift from gene flow in terms of:
• how they occur
• their implications for future genetic variation in a population.

Problem 7:
a. What is sexual selection?
b. What is the difference between intrasexual selection and intersexual selection?
c. Give an example of intrasexual selection and intersexual selection.

Problem 8:
Comparisons of amino acid sequences can shed light on the evolutionary divergence of related species. If you compared two living species, would you expect all proteins to show the same degree of divergence? Why or why not?

Solution Preview

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Problem 1:
a. Define each of the following: analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures.

Analogous structures are structures that look similar and perform similar functions but have arisen independently over evolutionary time. Homologous structures are structures that share the same evolutionary origin. Vestigial structures are structures that are of reduced size and have little or no function in the living species but were more robust and functional in ancestors of the species....

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