What is the history of DNA?
DNA was known to science as early as 1869. However, it did not play a major role in genetics until 1953 when Crick and Watson discovered the double helix. This structure molecule contains DNA. These two Cambridge scientists won the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their discovery (Watson and Crick Discover Chemical Structure of DNA).
Out of all of the contributors to the field, who do you think has made the greatest contribution to the discovery of DNA? Why?
Rosalind Franklin worked as an assistant for Maurice Wilkins in Paris around the same time Crick and Watson were studying DNA. Her work surpassed theirs. Wilkins was jealous of the fact that his assistant, a woman, had come so far in her research. This jealousy drove his to thievery. He took all of her research and brought it to Crick and Watson who gladly took credit for her hard work. Franklin unfortunately succumbed to ovarian cancer before she could take credit for her work (Bagley, 2013).
In your own words, describe and explain the components and arrangement of DNA.
DNA is made up of chemical components: phosphate, deoxyribose and four nitrogenous bases. The nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The first two have a double ring structure, the other two single rings. All of these components are in groups of nucleotides, made up of phosphate groups. The four nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. DNA is made of two chains twisted into a double helix (The Nature of DNA, 1999).
In your own words, what is the process by which DNA replicates?
The DNA separates in the middle making each side a pattern for reproduction. An enzyme called DNA gyrase cuts the double helix so it can separate. Helicase unwinds the DNA strand; single strand proteins temporarily bind the sides to keep them separate. Enzymes called polymerase moves down the strand adding nucleotides to it. Another subunit ‘proofreads’ the new DNA to ensure it is correct before another enzyme called ligase seals it into a new strand. The new DNA automatically winds into a new double helix (Freudenrich, 1998-2015).
In your own words, what is the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes? Explain.
Genes are made of DNA. Genes have a great influence on how we look and the goings on inside our bodies. Genes are the reason we look like our parents. The proteins in these genes are one of the processes that keep us alive. Although genes are the basic units of genetics, they only make up 3% of our DNA. DNA molecules work with proteins, tightly packing them, these proteins or histones make chromosomes. Chromosomes determine gender. Each body has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Males have XY chromosomes and females have XX. Some children are born with an extra chromosome, which results in Down syndrome (DNA, Genes and Chromosomes, 2014).
What do you think is the most important use of DNA testing and analysis? Explain in detail.
Although DNA affects almost every aspect of life, the link between solving crime is most important in my opinion. The use of DNA profiling helps to solve cases when there are no other resources to follow. It can provide clues when there is no one to tell the story, it can help to cut the number of wrongful arrests and convictions and increase the reliability of evidence. In addition, it can link cases together that would remain disconnected otherwise (Prime & Newman, 2015).
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. The history of genetic research began in 1875 with Gregor Mendel. In 1928 Fredrick Griffith formed the basis the DNA was the molecule of inhertenance. Watson and Crick but together a model of DNA in 1953. The biggest contribution I feel was made by Alec Jeffery’s, who developed DNA profiling (Mandal, 2015).
DNA is made up of small molecules, carbon sugars, a phosphate molecule, and nitrogenous bases. They are arranged in a certain way to form the DNA structure. This structure is called a double helix. These strands twist together to form a structure that looks like a ladder (Indiana University, 2014).
DNA replicates by reproducing itself. The double helix unwinds and forms a template in which the DNA uses to form bases. These bases are matched to partner strands that are used to reproduce it. This process happens over and over again.
DNA testing and analysis is used for many different things. The most important thing it is used for is solving old crimes and freeing people who have been convicted of crimes that they did not commit. This has been very important to the criminal justice field. It will continue to change how crimes are investigated and prosecuted.
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.I concur with Nevis’ outline of the history and development of DNA. Although scientists discovered the components and structure of the deoxyribonucleic in 1869, the work remained largely irrelevant as there lacked applicability methods. However, the research continued, though largely stagnated, until early 1950 with majority of the documented works belonging to Crick and Watson. In April 25, the two scholars published their findings on the double helix in the Nature Magazine....