These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.Introduction
By publishing “The Origin of Species” in 1859. Charles Darwin has changed the way how we observe the world. His theory of evolution gave an excellent starting point on how life was changing over time, but it also left a lot of unclear areas especially when it comes to the link between animals and human evolution branch. In 1866. Gregor Mendel was the first person who explained the way how characteristics are passed from parents to the next generations. This discovery has given better insight into the field of genetics and open a new window to the research of, what we knew today, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It is important to turn a view at the discovery of Oswald Avery for transforming principle of “natural chemicals”. In 1945. Avery was able to prove that nonpathogenic Pneumococcus (R-rough strain) injected into to mouse can be transformed into the pathogenic Pneumococcus (S-smooth strain) after the mouse was injected with heat-killed cells of pathogenic from of Pneumococcus (Klug, 2004).
In 1869. Swiss chemist Friedrich Mieschner discovered “nuclein” inside the nuclei of human white blood cells. He noticed when adding an acidic solution to the solution of the cells, a specific substance separated. This same substance disappeared when he used alkali chemicals. Based on chemical properties of this substance, Mieschner suspected that this supstance comes from the nucleus and named it nuclein. The “nuclein" later was called nucleic acid and afterward, it was named deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA (Pray, 2008). Albrecht Kossel, a German biochemist, has identified the “nuclein” as a deoxyribonucleic acid. Despite the DNA was discovered in 1869. its structure and importance in inheritance were not prompted until 1943. In 1953. James Watson and Francis Crick have discovered the double helix structure of DNA. For this discovery, Watson and Crick were awarded Noble Prize, and they shared it with Maurice Wilkins, the scientist who showed them x-ray photography of DNA made by Rosalind Franklin (History.com Editors, 2019).
The Structure of DNA
The discovery of the structure DNA in 1953. by Watson and Crick were one of the most important things since the theory of the evolution proposed by Darwin. The structure of the DNA gave an insight into the "secret of life". When...
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