Question

Write about pathogen: Clonorchis sinensis

A 36-year old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. He complained of these symptoms going on for a while and did not see a doctor thinking he ate something bad and it would pass. Upon examination, the patient was noted of having a tender, enlarged liver. After speaking more with the patient, he explained how doing PT (physical training) this morning with his fellow soldiers, he felt rather fatigued. His unit had recently returned from Korea and he has felt bad since he has been home. The patient was admitted to the hospital for further tests. After taking samples of his blood and stool, this microbe was found.

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Description of Infectious agents:
Clonorchis is a liver fluke that can infect the liver, gallbladder and bile duct (Clonorchiasis, updated 2015). Clonorchis sinensis is a trematode placed in the Opisthorchiidae family (Jones, et al, 2007). They are macroscopic, transparent and 10 to 25 mm long with 3-5 mm width. They are flattened or lancet shaped flukes whereas adult worms has cone shaped anterior pole, a large oral sucker, and a pair of deeply lobular testes arranged one behind the other in the posterior end (Figure 1). This microbe is aerobic in nature and it forms the spore called as sporocysts. The worms can be grown for 106 days in, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), and 114 days in both Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640) and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) media (Uddin, et al., 2012). It can be distinguished by other species by its small size, operculum and "knob" on posterior end. Also eggs which present in stool are small, ovoidal, or elongated with broad rounded posterior end (Despommier, et al., 1995)....

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