Answer the following questions:

(a) Scientists conduct an investigation of a lake to determine the distribution of microbes. Two samples from the lake are provided. Upon microscope analysis, one sample contains a microbe with chloroplasts (Microbe 1). The second sample contains a microbe (Microbe 2) which, when cultured using agar plates, can only survive within the body of the agar (and not on the surface of the agar).
(i) Produce one bullet-pointed list for each microbe. In your lists state in which region of the pond you would expect to find each microbe. Explain your reasoning by including the environmental conditions for that particular region. Also include a word equation summarising how each microbe obtains energy.
(ii) Microbes 1 and 2 were identified as psychrophiles. Describe the growth pattern of these microbes by referring to growth rate at temperatures below, at, and also above the optimum temperature for psychrophiles. By using diagrams of your own construction, compare the plasma membrane of a psychrophile with that of a mesophile. Ensure you have two diagrams, clearly labelled to show the section of plasma membrane for a psychrophile compared to a mesophile.

(b) A local dairy farmer plans to expand his business by making cheese. You are the environmental health officer assigned to the proposed plan and have to produce a scientific report. In your report you need to cover the role of appropriate microbes in cheese making. You do not need to describe each individual step in the process of cheese production itself but you will need to outline why, if strict hygiene controls are not followed, there could be a risk of food poisoning from contamination of the milk and cheese during the production process.

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1. (a)

Microbes 1:
• Microbe 1 is not a bacteria, as bacteria does not contains any cell organelles. Chloroplast is a specialized cell organelle.
• This organism is blue green algae (BGA), which is a prokaryotes (only two types of organisms keep chloroplasts namely BGA and plants).
• Blue green algae is also known as cyanobacteria and is present in the nature as planktonic or as phototropic biofilm. This organism will be present in the photic zone.
•Such organism uses sunlight as source of energy to drive photosynthesis, by which energy of sunlight is used to split water molecules into oxygen, protons, and electrons.

Microbes 2:
• Microbe 2 in an obligatory anaerobic organism.
• Such organism have anaerobic metabolic process, where they don’t have electron transport chains. These organism get energy through fermentation or anaerobic respiration.
• Such organism will be present in the aphotic zone of pond....
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