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a) Beta adrenergic receptor is a G- protein coupled receptors and has 7 transmembrane spanning alpha helices. When α-subunit of the Gs protein together with GTP bind to the β2-receptor then it is in activated form. When GTP is replaced by GDP then the G protein is inactivated form. β2-receptor activation is mediated increase in cAMP levels due to stimulation of adenylate cyclase. The coupling of the β2-receptor to adenylate cyclase is affected through a trimeric Gs protein. The trimeric G protein is active when GTP is bound to its alpha subunit and inactive when GDP is bound. cAMP levels are then regulated through the activity of phosphodiesterase isozymes/isoforms, which degrade it to 5′-AMP....

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