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1. Describe the structure and function of ribosomes. Where are they made and where are they found in the cell?
2. Define introns and exons.
3. Define epigenetics.
4. Compare and contrast northern blot with in situ hybridization.
5. What are the functions of the nucleolus?

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1. Describe the structure and function of ribosomes. Where are they made and where are they found in the cell?

Ribosomes are complexes made of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and ribosomal proteins, and their role is in the translation of mRNA (messenger RNA) into a sequence of amino acids, polypeptide. The rRNA have a catalytic and structural function because they create catalytic sites for translations of mRNA, while the ribosomal proteins have more of a supporting role in the ribosomes. Ribosomes have two distinct subunits, small and large subunits, and their size and composition are the main differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes ribosomes. The ribosomal small subunit in prokaryotes is the 30S and large 50S, while in eukaryotes is 40S and 60S. The S stands for the Svedberg unit, unit for sedimentation coefficient. The small and large subunit build three sites, P, A and E site, that are important for the synthesis of protein. For the A site is binding the tRNA that is carrying an amino acid of a complementary codon, P site is where the tRNA that carries growing polypeptide chain is bound (previously read codon) and the E site is the site on which is bound the tRNA that is leaving the ribosome. The ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm where they carry their function, but in the eukaryotes thay can be found in the free form in the cytoplasm or bound for the endoplasmic reticulum....
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