Investigation: DNA, Proteins, and Sickle Cell
Sickle cell is a disease where a person has abnormally shaped blood cells.
The reason for the abnormal shape of blood lies in the underlying genetic
The sequence below shows a part of the genetic code for the HBB Gene.
This gene provides the instructions for making a protein called beta-globin.
The gene sequence is shown below. Use the sequence to create RNA and
the sequence of amino acids.
HbA hemoglobin in normal adults
G T G
T G A
G G A
Each amino acid in the chain joins together and then folds into a three dimensional shape a PROTEIN.
most people, that protein is fully functional and results in blood cells that have a round shape and can bind
with oxygen efficiently. What would happen if one small change occurs?
RECALL QUESTION: A change and/or alteration in the sequence of DNA is called a
HbS hemoglobin found in individuals with sickle cell anemia
C A C
G T G
G A C
T G A
G G A
C A T
The change in the sequence of HbS causes the blood cells
to be shaped like sausages, rather than round. These cells
cannot bind oxygen as efficiently and become clogged in
tiny capillaries. The result is a person who is ANEMIC, or
has low amounts of oxygen in their blood, which will make
a person feel tired. The abnormal cells can become
clumped together causing blood clots, which may damage
tissue or evenlead to a stroke. People with sickle cell
anemia may also experience pain in their joints.
SYNTHESIS: Answer each of the following using complete sentences.
1. What is the relationship between DNA, codons, and proteins?
2. How does the shape of a protein relate to its function? Refer to specific
details about sickle cell anemia.
3. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the
structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized
Fill in the blanks using the word bank below (Highlight Your Answers In Yellow):
DNA is composed of sugar, phosphate and four
(A, T, G, C). During
transcription, DNA is made into a molecule of
which will travel to the
in the cytoplasm, Here, three bases, called a
acid is added to the chain. This chain will fold into a
shape of this molecule determines how it functions.
Changes in the DNA code are called
and they can cause a
protein to not function properly. A single change in
the DNA of the hemoglobin gene will cause
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