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Investigation: DNA, Proteins, and Sickle Cell Schain. Sickle cell is a disease where a person has abnormally shaped blood cells. The reason for the abnormal shape of blood lies in the underlying genetic code. The sequence below shows a part of the genetic code for the HBB Gene. This gene provides the instructions for making a protein called beta-globin. from The gene sequence is shown below. Use the sequence to create RNA and shain Heme the sequence of amino acids. Henoglobin DNA of HbA hemoglobin in normal adults DNA A C G T G GAC T G A G G A CTT CTC 3'to 5' RNA Amino Acid Each amino acid in the chain joins together and then folds into a three dimensional shape a PROTEIN. In most people, that protein is fully functional and results in blood cells that have a round shape and can bind with oxygen efficiently. What would happen if one small change occurs? RECALL QUESTION: A change and/or alteration in the sequence of DNA is called a DNA of HbS hemoglobin found in individuals with sickle cell anemia DNA C A C G T G G A C T G A G G A C A T CTC RNA Amino Acid Gly -- Lvu Asp' A u The change in the sequence of HbS causes the blood cells c tyr to be shaped like sausages, rather than round. These cells Ala Stop G U cannot bind oxygen as efficiently and become clogged in A C tiny capillaries. The result is a person who is ANEMIC, or c A Cys Vall U G Stap has low amounts of oxygen in their blood, which will make G Irp , a person feel tired. The abnormal cells can become Arg G U clumped together causing blood clots, which may damage Leu Ber A tissue or evenlead to a stroke. People with sickle cell C A u Lye U G anemia may also experience pain in their joints. Asn U U Thw c Ile Arg Met SYNTHESIS: Answer each of the following using complete sentences. 1. What is the relationship between DNA, codons, and proteins? 2. How does the shape of a protein relate to its function? Refer to specific details about sickle cell anemia. 3. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1) Fill in the blanks using the word bank below (Highlight Your Answers In Yellow): sickle amino mRNA codon nitrogenous bases ribosomes protein mutations DNA is composed of sugar, phosphate and four (A, T, G, C). During transcription, DNA is made into a molecule of which will travel to the in the cytoplasm, Here, three bases, called a will determine what acid is added to the chain. This chain will fold into a This shape of this molecule determines how it functions. DNA RNA Changes in the DNA code are called Amino and they can cause a Protein protein to not function properly. A single change in the DNA of the hemoglobin gene will cause cell anemia.

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