Explain the steps involved in producing a homozygous knock-out of a single gene in the mouse.

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Mus musculus is a vertebrate model organism used to study human gene mapping, phenotypes, and diseases (including cancer); 99% of its genes are orthologous to human genes. In the 1990s, the mouse was one of the first genetic model organisms also because it presents a smooth reproduction, a short generation period, and its laboratory maintenance requires low cost. The mouse has (2n) 40 chromosomes with 30,000 protein-coding genes. The knockout mouse is the inactivation of one or more genes by replacing it or by disrupting them. The loss of the gene(s) can lead to changes in the mouse phenotype and permit studying in vivo gene function and other mechanisms. The advent of molecular biology has allowed genetic manipulation and production of homozygous knockout of a single gene in the mouse. The homozygous knockout means that both alleles of the gene are inactivated. The embryonic stem (ES) cell approach...

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