1. Why oh Why did we use substandard shielding on our Martian greenhouse? Please explain the effects of the following mutations and justify your answer for each (50 pts total, 5 pts each)
a. The water splitting complex of PSII works at about half the rate it did previously
b. The number of antenna molecules in the photosystems (chlorophyll, carotenoids) has been decreased by 80% but the special pair is intact.
c. Cytb6/f complex can no longer oxidize the quinones from PSII.
d. A gene for flavanoid production associated with nodulation has had a premature stop codon inserted into it
e. Expansins in guard cells (which control stomata opening and closing) are no longer active
f. Secondary cell wall formation is inhibited
g. A cell surface amylase has been converted to a cellulase
h. The vacuole has been eliminated
i. Auxin efflux proteins are equally distributed across the cell surface (not polar anymore)
j. Cyclic electron flow between PSI and the cytb6/f complex has been blocked.

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a) The water splitting complex PSII works at about half the rate it did previously.
The PSII absorbs photons and utilized that energy to split water for delivery of electrons that are required to compensate the electrons those are lost by excitation to Co-Q.
If this complex works at about half the rate, then the supply of electrons will reduce to half and hence two things will happen.1) The supply of electron to the PS-I will reduce. 2) The supply of protons H+ to NADP will reduce and less production of NADPH2 will take place.

b) The number of antennae molecules in the photosystem (chlorophylls carotenoids) have been decreased to 80% but the special pair is intact.
Ans: The pigment molecules in the photosystem absorb photons, harvest light energy and then transport it in the form of electrons, to the antenna. Together, they also protect the central Chlorophyll from photo...
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