1) Document examples of fish using eachof the various swimming modes(describe what you observed!):
a.Body propulsioni.Anguilliformii.Subcarangiformiii.Carangiform
b.Fin propulsion i.dorsal/anal ii.pectoral
2) How does the morphology of the tail and caudal peduncle help us to distinguish between subcarangiform and carangiform swimmers?
3) Describe a fish that displays “burst”swimming during the period of your observation(i.e., periods of “rest”interspersed with periods of rapid movement).Describe a fish that seems to swim continuously.
4) Carefully document an example of a bony fishusing active gill ventilation.Describe what you observed.
5) Observe & document active gill ventilation in a rajiform fish.
6) What species did you observe(or research about, if you didn’t see an example)that appear to require RAM ventilation?

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1 a. Body propulsion
i. Anguilliform :Eel , in this mode of propulsion, the movement is produced by the appendicular undulation of almost the entire body except the head region and the entire body undulation is in a sinusoidal wave .the force of forward propagation is thus generated.
ii. Subcarangiform: Shark,here the forward propulsion is produced by the undulations that are generated towards the posterior 2 /3 rd of the body .It is characteristic of fish movement where the amplitude rapidly increases over the posterior half of the body.
iii. Carangiform: Mackerel. Here the forward propulsion is produced by the caudal terminal region of the boy, usually the caudal fin. The tail appears to be a stiff than the subcarangiform type and the very end of the body undulates .The movement of the tail tends more towards oscillation than undulation...
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