Select three of the scenarios in the Applications list 12.2 (a.-y.) at the end of Ch. 12 in The Art of Thinking.
A) Having great wealth is a worthy goal because it is difficult to attain and many famous people have pursued it.
B) Low grades on a college transcript are a handicap in the job market, so teachers who grade harshly are doing students a disservice.
C) Power must be evil because it can corrupt people.
Apply the following in 200 to 350 words for each scenario:
• Evaluate each argument, using the 4-step process described on p. 218, regarding soundness of reasoning (truth and validity).
• Explain your assessment and add alternative argumentation where necessary.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Include a minimum of three scholary (peer reviewed) references in the analysis.
1. State your argument fully, as clearly as you can. Be sure to identify any hidden premises and, if the argument is complex, to express all parts of it.
2. Examine each part of your argument for errors affecting truth. (To be sure your examination is not perfunctory, play devil’s advocate and challenge the argument, asking pointed questions about it, taking nothing for granted.)
Note any instances of either/or thinking, avoiding the issue, overgeneralizing, oversimplifying, double standard, shifting the burden of proof, or irrational appeal. In addition, check to be sure that the argument reflects the evidence found in your investigation (see Chapter 8) and is relevant to the pro and con arguments and scenarios you produced earlier (see Chapter 9).
3. Examine your argument for validity errors; that is, consider the reasoning that links conclusions to premises. Determine whether your conclusion is legitimate or illegitimate.
4. If you find one or more errors, revise your argument to eliminate them. The changes you will have to make in your argument will depend on the kinds of errors you find. Sometimes, only minor revision is called for—the adding of a simple qualification, for example, or the substitution of a rational appeal for an irrational one. Occasionally, however, the change required is more dramatic. You may, for example, find your argument so flawed that the only appropriate action is to abandon it altogether and embrace a different argument. On those occasions, you may be tempted to pretend your argument is sound and hope no one will notice the errors.
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a. Having great wealth is a worthy goal because it is difficult to attain and many famous people have pursued it.
Anything difficult to attain and pursued by famous people is a worthy goal.
Most famous people have great wealth therefore if you want to be a famous person, you need to attain great wealth.
Due to the fact that many famous people have pursued great wealth, the hidden premise here is that this is a worthy goal....
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