QuestionQuestion

Urban Sustainability Research Paper Description

You are required to write a short research paper analyzing the effectiveness of one policy (or program or tool) used to make any one city more sustainable.

Step 1: Choose a city that you would like to research. It could be a city that you have lived in for a long time, or only visited or have learnt about in other courses at school, or a city that you wish to learn more about. Choose an aspect of urban sustainability that you are interested in or would like to know more about (for example, water conservation). Then choose one program or policy or tool (such as low-flow toilets) in your area of interest in sustainability that the city has adopted to become more sustainable.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research to see if enough information if available about the city, the program and the effectiveness of the program to enable you to write a short research paper. And if you don’t find enough information, then repeat Step 1 with a different city or program.

Step 3: Post your choice of city and program to the Discussion Board on Blackboard

Step 4: Start writing the paper. The paper should have the following elements:
a) An intro paragraph that describes concerns about unsustainable urban development, some
information about the specific aspect of sustainability that you wish to focus on, a sentence or two on the specific program/policy/tool whose effectiveness you wish to evaluate, and a couple of sentences about the structure of the paper to inform the reader about what he/she can expect to read in the rest of the paper.
b) A few paragraphs about the city you have chosen to write about.
c) A few paragraphs about the aspect of urban sustainability that you have chosen to write about. Here
discuss why this issue is important in your city (i.e., the city of your choice for this paper). Provide some information on how serious the problem was in the past (i.e., before the program/policy/tool that you analyze was adopted).
d) Describe the program/policy/tool whose effectiveness you explore. Describe also the reasons that specific program/policy/tool was adopted. Why this one and not something else. Were the reasons based on sound science? Was the reason for adoption political?
e) Discuss the challenges involved in implementing the program/policy/tool. How successful was the implementation? Why do you say so?
f) Did the implementation of the program/policy/tool make the city more sustainable? Why?
g) How can the positive impact on urban sustainability of the program/policy/tool be improved? Would
the city be better off using another program/policy/tool to improve sustainability? Why?
h) A concluding paragraph that summarizes key points of your paper.

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

Singapore – Leading the World in Sustainable Water Management

Introduction
Rapid population growth, urbanization, and climate change’s “negative impacts on the hydrological cycle” (Polprasert et a., 2015, p. 2) together conspire to make sustainable urban development of paramount importance, especially in terms of sustainable water management. The problems of “serious water scarcity and water pollution” (p. 2) can only be addressed through effective water management. Singapore is one of the most water-stressed nations in the world, yet the unprecedented effectiveness of its water management programs—its Four National Taps program, in particular—has made it a global leader on urban sustainability. This report first presents a brief overview of facts about Singapore relevant to the issue of sustainable water management. Discussed next, in detail, is the importance of water management for Singapore, such as in terms of its historical and ongoing water supply problems. What follows is an overview of the Four Taps program, followed then by a brief discussion of challenges faced in implementing the program. Finally, the role of conservation in augmenting Singapore’s water management is considered.
Singapore
Singapore is “a small island city-state with limited land and no natural resources” (UN, 2018) and thus has had little choice but to tackle head-on the challenges of sustainable urban development. As presented by Singapore’s deputy prime minister last year, at the Ecosperity 2017 conference, the nation’s overall “sustainable development experience has focused on four key areas: Building a sustainable economy; creating a sustainable living environment; ensuring sustainable development for [Singaporeans]; and contributing to international collaboration” (Hean, 2017).
To bring about such sustainable development has been a long-term process of planning and resource optimization, where Singapore’s limited natural resources has made management of “budget, land, manpower, energy, and more recently, carbon emissions” (Hean, 2017) imperative. Arguably, water management must underwrite not just sustainable urban development but every element of sustainability initiatives as well. Key facts in connection with Singapore’s water management challenges will be discussed in the course of presenting its water management programs, such as the unalterable fact of its insufficient land area for water catchment.
The importance and challenges of water management for Singapore
Singapore’s Public Utility Board (PUB), the National Water Agency responsible for managing the country’s “water supply, water catchment and used water in an integrated way” (PUB, 2018a) reports that current water demand stands at approximately 430 million gallons a day; 45% of that demand is for domestic use (PUB, 2018b). Singapore already meets 40% of that demand...

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