Question 1 (50 points):
Suppose Alice, Bob, and Carol want to use secret keys to authenticate each other. If they all used the same secret key K, then Bob could impersonate Carol to Alice (actually any of the three can impersonate the other to the third). Suppose instead that each had their own secret key, so Alice uses KA, Bob uses KB, and Carol uses KC. This means that each one, to prove his/her identity (authenticate), responds to a challenge with a function of his/her secret key and the challenge. Is this more secure that having them all use the same secret key K? (Hint: what does Alice need to know in order to verify Carol’s answer to Alice’s challenge?)

Question 2 (50 points):
Doing a digital signature with RSA alone on a long message would be too slow (presumably using cipher block chaining). Suppose we could do division quickly. Would it be reasonable to compute an RSA based digital signature on a long message by first finding what the message equals, mod n, and then signing the result of the division mod n.

How many different user accounts should use the same password? many as the user wants
b. 1
C. 2
d at least 3 but never more than 7

What encryption key is used to verify a digital signature of a message?
a. The receiver's public key
b. The sender's public key
c. The receiver's private key
d. The sender's private key

Which of the following statements correctly describes passwords?
a. They are the most expensive authentication factor to use and can be the least secure
b. They are the least expensive authentication factor to use and can be the least secure.
c. They are the least expensive authentication factor to use and can be the most secure
d. They are the most expensive authentication factor to use and can be the most secure

Which of the following is a security service provided by passwords? (Select all that apply)
a. Data Integrity
b. Peer-entity authentication
c. Data-origin authentication
d. User authentication
e. Non-repudiation of sender
f. Data Confidentiality
g. Authorization
h. Non-repudiation of receiver
i. Information Integrity

Which of the following provides the best (strongest form of) authentication?
a. What a person has
b. What a person has and knows
c. What a person knows
d. What a person is

Which of the following provides authentication, access control and confidentiality protection to IEEE 802.11g wireless LANs?
(Select all that apply)
a. IEEE 802.11i (WPA2)
b. WEP
c. IEEE 802.11a
d. WPA

When security is a high priority, why is fiber cabling used?
a. It has high data transfer rates and is less vulnerable to electromagnetic emanations (EMI)
b. It multiplexes data, which can confuse attackers
c. It is impossible to intercept data from a fiber optic cable.
d. It has a high degree of data detection and correction

Which of the following security services are provided to the receiver when the sender transmits a symmetrically encrypted message digest prepared from a plain text message along with the plain text message? (Select all that apply)
a. User authentication
b. No security services
c. Data Confidentiality
d. Data Integrity
e. Non-repudiation of sender
f. Authorization
g. Peer-entity authentication
h. Information Integrity
i. Non-repudiation of receiver
j. Data-origin authentication

When a password is written down on a piece of paper, the password is converted into a factor. Select from the following list the response that best fills in the blank.
a. Biometric Factor
b. Knowledge Factor
c. Location Factor
d. Possession Factor

Which of the following are examples of a "Factor" used for authenticating human users? (Select all that apply)
a. Door key
b. Private key
c. Fingerprint
d. DNA
e. passphrase
f. Secret key
g. Name

Which of the following attacks is the following Challenge-Response protocol vulnerable to? (Select all that apply)
                            I'm Alice ---->
                <------       C1
Alice                f(KAlice-Bob. (1). C2 ---->    Bob
                  <------- f(KAlice-Bob. (2)
a. not vulnerable to reflection or replay attack
b. reflection attack
c. replay attack

Which of the following shows the sequence of layers as layer 2, 5, 7,4, and 3?
a. Data link, transport, application, session, and network
b. Network, session, application, network, and transport
c. Data link, session, application, transport, and network
d. Network, transport, application, session, and presentation

What encryption key is used to create a digital signature of a message?
a. The sender's private key
b. The sender's public key
c. The receiver's public key
d. The receiver's private key

Which of the following best describes a digital signature?
a. A method to let the receiver of the message prove the source and integrity of a message
b. A method to encrypt confidential information
c. A method of transferring a handwritten signature to an electronic document
d. A method to provide an electronic signature and encryption

Which of the following are attributes of a high quality password (the question is not 7 asking about passphrases)? (Select all that apply)
a. Includes numeric digits and letters
b. Must be changed every 45 days
c. Uses at least 10 characters
d. Is easy to remember
e. Includes lower case letters
f. Includes words
g. Should be written down
h. Includes upper case letters

Sonet includes authentication, confidentiality and data integrity security mechanisms. Is this statement true of false?

What does authentication mean?
a. Authorizing a user for access
b. Registering a user
c. Identifying a user
d. Validating a user's identity

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1 - b
2 - b
3 - b...

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