The task:
Do a cost-benefit analysis of free public transportation in a city Lagos, Nigeria.
You have to compare two alternatives:
1. If everything remains as it is;
2. If public transportation is provided for free.
You have to name costs and benefits of both the alternatives and say which one you would recommend for the municipality of the city based on the results of your analysis.

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To provide for a free public transport system vis leaving alternative systems in existence as such, many factors both economic and financial in nature as well as socio economic factors and other inherent costs and benefits were studied. Incidentally the free system would discourage any private partnerships from getting involved in building such systems.
Summary of costs:
• Capital costs: The capital costs of running even a network of buses are enormous. And if a system of suburban train network is to be implemented then the incidental capital cost would deal a serious blow to the city's coffers.
• Operational costs: Fuel, staff and maintenance expense are some of the primary operational costs. The Stations and/or stops planned need to maintain with additional staffs and/ or computer systems as required.
• Facility costs: Stops and stations would need additional facilities like toilets and tend to increase the cost of the system maintenance
• Other external costs: Accident risks and pollution emissions also tend to increase the system cost.
These beneficial factors were found to influence the decision to implement such a service.
• Many of the free public transport system are created to provide mobility to the non-driving population.
• High quality systems that ensure proper deliverance with specific stops and timings tend to attract travelers who would otherwise congest the traffic with private vehicles
• High quality public transport systems covering a wide area help in dispersing the population from high density neighborhoods to the suburban regions who would otherwise need to rely on private transport and hence the city's growth is indirectly influenced.
• A well-developed public transport system that is free can vastly help a metropolitan like Lagos to reduce traffic congestion, accidents and pollution emissions and parking problems
• Social benefits of free public transport systems are vast but lie incalculable. They provide security, develop society into a friendly unit and help all the different sections of society without discretion
• Incidental compliments to a free public transport like walking and cycling get linked, the society gets healthier.
• Rising fuel prices, urbanization and aging population cry in favor of a high quality free public transport system.

Public transportation: Introduction
Public transportation is the means by which larger portion of a city’s population gain access to various goods and services that goes towards enhancing their livelihood and the well being of the community in general. It plays a pivotal role of providing an alternate commutation which is affordable in place of private vehicle ownership
City wide public transport may range from buses, trains, share taxis and ferries. They can be influenced by a variety of characteristics of its population availing these services. They may be understood by the demand for such travel based on the commuters’ gender, aged, marital status, education, employment and income levels, and the household type and many more factors.
It therefore makes sense...

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