Cultures vary in their approaches to the given environment, between belief that it can be controlled by the individual and belief that the individual must respond to external circumstances. We should not, however, make the error of assuming that inner-direction and outer-direction are exclusive options. All cultures necessarily take some notice of what is inside or outside. To fail to do so would lead inner-directed cultures into a headlong rush la disaster, while outer-directed cultures would try to please everyone and dissipate their energies by over-compliance. Inner-directed managers are never happier than when they have won over other people to their own way of thinking. This is the ideal they strive for, but it is one which may he deemed aggressive and uncouth in Outer-directed cultures. Leaders in these stress how much they have learned from their mistakes and from other's objections or criticisms.
One reason staff suggestions enrich several Asian organizations and participation is so high is because listening rather than declaiming is seen as the more admirable trait. Such cultures do not clash openly. To negate what someone else is saying is to ride roughshod over nature. The aiter-native is to take the proposal on board and alter its import subsequently if it remains unpopular. The word "feedback" is an interesting one in Western management jargon. It recognizes the need to periodically correct an ongoing thrust or function. But rarely is feedback considered as important as the original direction. Indeed feedback is the means by which the original direction is maintained. To participate fully in an outer-directed culture, inner-directed managers must accept that feedback can alter the whole direction of the organization. They must listen to the customer and aim to fill their need as opposed to win their allegiance. Major change can come from both outside and inside. Once again we see that culture is about where a circle "starts" or where a manager conceives of change originating. To conceive of the organization as an open system operating within a larger system allows both inner-directed and outer-directed orientations in develop.
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.The pay for performance plan could not be implemented effectively across all the regions of the company. This is because there is a difference in the Western culture and the Asian culture and it is important for managers to understand these...
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