Motivation and Productivity

Final Project

You are now ready to complete The Final Project.

This final project will give you additional insight into the dynamics of your workplace and of the people with who you work.
Complete the following seven questions that apply what you have learned in this course to your workplace.

The answer to each question should be between 300 and 500 words in total. Your answer should be written in full sentences and paragraphs, and referenced if necessary.

The final project contains seven questions, which will be weighted as follows:

1. Description of Your Workplace 10%

2. Attribution Theory 15%

3. Job Design 15%

4. Leadership 15%

5. Management by Objectives 15%

6. Rewards 15%

7. Communications 15%

1. Description of Your Workplace
This final project requires you to relate the course material to the organization in which are you presently employed, or an organization in which you recently participated as an employee.

If you are (were) employed in a department or unit of a large company, provide a description of the department or unit and the product or service supplied.

If you are (were) employed in a small company, provide a description of the whole company and the product or service supplied.

2. Attribution Theory
Discuss your views on the validity and usefulness of attribution theory based on your current perception of its relevance to your life at work (and/or personal life).
Your answer will be judged according to your clarity of thought and reasoning and not according to whether you agree or disagree with attribution theory.
Your answer should not exceed the equivalent of two typed pages.

3. Job Design
Select a motivational problem that exists in your workplace that you feel could best be solved by job design/job enrichment.

a) Describe the motivational problem, and explain why you feel job enrichment is the most appropriate technique to use.

b) According to the Hackman and Oldham approach to job design, there are five characteristics that determine the extent to which a job is intrinsically reinforcing and four principles that can be used to design intrinsically rewarding jobs. Using the Hackman and Oldham approach, make at least three specific recommendations to describe how you would use job enrichment to solve the motivational problem.

c) What costs do you feel will result from introducing job enrichment in this situation? You are not expected to gather specific information or exact dollar figures, but simply to indicate which costs are likely to apply and to estimate these costs whenever possible.

d) Finally, what benefits do you feel will result from introducing job enrichment in this situation?

This question requires you to assess the effectiveness of your supervisor’s leadership behaviour and to make recommendations for improvement.

a) Assess the effectiveness of your supervisor’s leadership behaviour and make specific recommendations for improvement by applying the Bowers-Seashore Four-Factor Model, or the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Model, or McGregor’s Theory X - Y Model of Leadership.

b) Explain why you feel that the particular model of leadership that you used in Part (a) offers the best insights for improving the leadership behaviour of your supervisor.

5. Managing by Objectives
Select a co-worker who you feel would be suitable to participate in the management by objectives process.

a) Describe the type of work performed by this worker.

b) Keeping in mind the motivational premises inherent in MBO, explain why you feel that the MBO approach is suitable for this person.

c) Describe in detail how you would use the MBO approach if you were this person’s supervisor.

d) Finally, what benefits do you feel will result from introducing MBO in this situation.

6. Rewards
Consider a co-worker’s behaviour which really bothers you and which you would like to see change. Pick a different example from any which you may have used in this course.

a) On the attached “Behavioural Analysis Worksheet”:

(i) describe the behaviour which you would like to see change.

(ii) describe the desired behaviour.

(iii) describe the desired behaviour in operational terms.

(iv) describe the actual responses which occur both when the desired behaviour occurs and when it does not occur.

(v) indicate your perception as to whether the person performing the behaviour will view each response as favourable or unfavourable (F/U) and also indicate for each response whether something is presented or withdrawn (P/W).

(vi) categorize each response as positive reinforcement (PR), negative reinforcement (NR), punishment by contingent presentation (PCP), or punishment by contingent withdrawal (PCW) as defined in workbook 5.

(vii) categorize the strategy represented by each response as positive (POS), negative (NEG) or incorrect (INC) as defined in workbook 5.

b) Based on the behavioural analysis, suggest two or three solutions to the problems or changes which could be made to improve the situation and indicate the most probable positive consequences and any predictable negative consequences.

c) Comment on how well your solutions/changes correspond to Reinforcement Theory with particular reference to the five “rules” for effective responses, i.e., positiveness, contingency, immediacy, appropriateness, and frequency. Also comment on whether you would have any ethical concerns over implementing your

7. Communications
Consider an actual situation in which you have sought guidance from a specific supervisor about work-related issues.

a) Describe the actual problem-solving sequence followed by the supervisor and compare this to the four problem-solving steps for a development guidance interview presented in workbook 6.

Evaluate and discuss the similarities and differences in approach and indicate whether the guidance received would have been any different had the supervisor used the four-step model.

b) In the interview outlined above, your supervisor may have used several of the following types of responses:






taking sides


asking for definitions

asking for background information

asking for elaboration

asking for problem solving

rhetorical question


Indicate which types of response the supervisor tended to use and comment on your reaction to them.

Would the supervisor have offered better guidance if he/she had given different types of responses? If so, suggest alternative types of responses and explain why they likely would be more effective.

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This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.

Answer 1:

I would like to discuss my experience when I had worked in a small non-profit organization as a nursing assistant.
The organization was a different one since it was not focused on making profits, but it wanted to provide service to the elderly people.

The vision of the organization is to bring the individuals together so that the young can take care of the elderly.
As the young get old, they need assistance with services such as cleaning, managing hospital appointments, taking shower, etc.

Accordingly, this organization provided the platform through which people could connect with each other and offer services to the needy.
The membership base was open to anyone who had the helping attitude in them and were willing to spend their free time to help the ones in need.
There were no stringent criteria for getting membership and it was free for all volunteers to join the organization and offer help to the elderly.

The only requirement was that every member should possess a clean record and should not have been convicted of theft, murder or any such crime.
The organization was largely managed by funds donated by the elderly who got help from the volunteers and members.
The members did not receive any monetary compensation for spending their time to take care of the elderly.
They were only paid for conveyance and expenses incurred to deliver the service to the elderly.

The main payoff from this role was to achieve intrinsic satisfaction and feel that something good and useful was done in free times.
Whenever any service request was received from any elderly person, the organization would send email to all the registered members and the assignment was done on first-come-first-serve basis.
Members would reply if they were available during those hours. Most of the work was done during the weekend since the members were free from their office work and could engage in other social activities.

Answer 2:

Attribution theory is one of the most important theories of motivation since it provides the reasoning behind what individuals do. The theory has also stated four factors namely ability, task difficulty, effort and luck as the primary factors that can influence the achievement of the individual. As an individual, I have always been acting in a rational manner...
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