A. Outline of the Report
a. Meaning and Definition
b. Background of the topic (Origin, evolution and current state of the topic)
c. Importance of the topic for managers/organizations
2. Review of literature (One research article)
i. Title of the study
ii. Objectives of the study (Why the study?)
iii. Methodology (How the study is done)
iv. Findings (The results and outcomes of the study)
v. Management Learning from the study
3. Related Business News (One business news)
a. News title
b. Summary of the news
c. Management Learning
a. Pages 5- 10 pages (excluding cover page and references)
b. Times New Roman, 12 font size, Titles bolded
c. Spacing - 1.5
d. 1” margin
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.1.1 Meaning and Definition of Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal is defined as a process which involves deliberate stock taking of the success which has been achieved by any individual or an organization while doing or performing the tasks assigned to them or by achieving the goals which have been assigned to them over a period of time (Alo, 1999). Thus in simple terms performance appraisal can be called as systematic assessment of any individual’s performance (Obisis, 2011). The factors like leadership abilities, initiative, job knowledge, dependability, quality and quantity of output, supervision, judgment, versatility etc.
Thus from the above definitions it is clear that performance appraisals is a deliberate and not an accidental practice. Performance appraisal is a unique system which helps organizations in identification of people’s performance levels through various means (Atiomo, 2000) . It also helps in providing tools to a company for finding the areas where the people need to improve so that maximum potential of human resource is to be utilized (Fajana, 1997).
1.2 Background of Performance Appraisal
W.D. Scott introduced the concept of performance appraisal during World War I. By mid 1950’s performance appraisal systems were very well established using personality-based systems widely. But McGregor (1957) showed some unease while using personality-based rating and suggested that performance-based approach along with participative approach including some elements of self-appraisal was more useful. In 1960’s more emphasis was laid on management by objectives which laid more emphasis on goal stetting and assessing performance-related abilities.
In 1970’s the appraisal practices were scrutinized and psychometrics became a part of appraisal process as major trend by 1980’s and 1990’s the Performance Management concept came into vogue. This gave more holistic approach in giving motivation (Williams, 1998), managing human resources and enhancing performance. Traditionally job-related tasks are considered to be the key elements of appraisal, but present trend includes many other major issues. Performance appraisal is seen as important tool which is used for accurate self awareness, communication and teamwork skills, handling of emotions etc (Briscoe...