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1) 1. Control charts
In all production processes, it is a need to monitor the extent to which the products meet specifications. Generally speaking, there are two "enemies" of product quality: (1) deviations from target specifications, and (2) excessive variability around target specifications.
The general approach to on-line quality control is straightforward: samples of a certain size are extracted from the ongoing production process. Line charts of the variability in those samples is produced, and their closeness to target specifications is considered. If a trend emerges in those lines, or if samples fall outside pre-specified limits, then the process is declared to be out of control...
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