1) The concentration of copper in a water sample can be determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). A 1000 ppm solution of Cu is available in the laboratory. The standard working range for the analysis of Cu by AAS is 0.03-10 ppm at a wavelength of 324.7nm.
Prepare a set of 5 calibration standards over the concentration range of 1.0 to 10.0 ppm for analysis. Prepare a sixth standard as a replicate of one of the concentrations in your original set. You will determine the concentration of an unknown copper solution using the calibration curve you calculate from the data collected.
2) The concentration of Ni²+ can be determined in solution by UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy. Using the 0.2537M Ni(NO3)2 solution available in the laboratory, prepare a 0.01776M solution for analysis.

1) Calculate the appropriate calibration curve for your set of Cu standards. Report the concentration of the unknown copper solution as well as its confidence interval. How does the reproducibility of the instrument compare to your reproducibility in preparing the standards?
2) Using the measured absorbance value for your Ni²+ solution, calculate the molar absorptivity of the Ni(NO3)2 solution at the wavelength chosen for analysis. Using a propagation of error approach, calculate the expected uncertainty in the result that depends upon the pipets and volumetric glassware used in the solution preparation.

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