Write a literature review about separation of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs by capillary zone electrophoresis.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Paracetamol, etc. are widely used in the treatments of various types of ailments such as inflammation, acute and chronic pain, fever and arthritis (Peterson et al., 2010). These drugs inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) resulted in suppression of inflammation, reduction in pain and produced analgesia. But these drugs nonselectively inhibit the protective PGs and hence causes the unwanted gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side effects such as GI bleeding, ulceration, and perforation lead to high rate of morbidity and mortality in patients (Bagchi et al., 2012. p.52).
A large number of molecules with a different type of properties can be separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) which is an efficient and cost effective technique. The separation is done in a fine capillary tube coated with fused silica (Watson 2012, p 376). The basic principle involved in the electrophoresis is the migration of ions under the influence of a high electric field (30kv) applied across the capillary tube. In the capillary due to the electric field, the positive ions diffused from the double layer of ions and travel towards the cathode; along with water of hydration, which generates electroosmotic flow (Fig. 1). Hence both cations, as well as anions, can be separated by their mobilities.
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is the simplest type of CE in which the applied sample will be enclosed in the separation buffer. Each component is separated by a zone based on apparent mobility of charged ion, but neutral molecules cannot be separated. Later this issue was resolved by the development of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC), this technique allows the use of micelles (amphiphilic surfactant) in the separation buffer. Micelles serve as a pseudo-stationary phase and interact through electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding types of interactions which allow separating charged as well as neutral molecules. Other development in CE is Capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) involves a leading, as well as a trailing electrolyte and sample, injected between them hence charge molecule is separated without electroosmosis, but cations and anions cannot be separated at the same time. Separation of large biomolecules (proteins and DNA) can be achieved by Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) that is performed in a polymeric gel medium such as polyacrylamide and agarose. The amphoteric substances such as proteins, peptides, amino acids can be separated by capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) which is based on differences in the isoelectric point of components. CE is further transformed by inclusion as narrow-bore capillaries in of gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to increase efficiency. (Xu 1996, p.1)
Literature review:
Separation and analysis of various drugs including NSAIDs mostly performed by HPLC (Upton et al. 1980, p.119) which is a time consuming and expensive technique compared to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Although mostly NSAIDs have not been studied using CZE, but currently the trends increasing toward these techniques due to various advantages such as higher resolution, less time, low sample amount and short time. Also due...
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