This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.Introduction
Underground cavities that store natural gas and oil also contain high quantities of water which concurrently comes out when the deposit is drilled and is called produced water (PW). The ratio of PW to oil is three to one in a standard oil well while this figure goes up to around fifty to one when the well nears depletion . Maintaining the reservoir pressure at the desired levels to keep stable oil production, using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, results in the increase in the amount of PW goes. Disposal and treatment of PW are becoming an important topic due to increased environmental awareness, more demanding regulations, lack of fresh water and problems related to disposal of PW. Additionally, produced water is increasingly being used in EOR for which it needs to be cleaned as to avoid pore blockage in the reservoir itself. To address this issue, a viable and sustainable solution in water management is sought through water recycling and its reuse. However, PW is rich in scale-forming ions, bacteria, small solid particles which can all have a detrimental effect on the oil recovery if used untreated so efficient and eco-friendly ways are needed to form a solution. Demand for water also grows in other areas, such as household use and irrigation, and the overuse of water resources leads to a decrease in groundwater levels.
Last ten years have seen a steady rise in research of membrane filtration technology for PW treatment with many papers focusing on ceramic membranes (CM). Pore size can be used to classify the level of pore needed for a certain application with microfiltration (MF – 10–6m) and ultrafiltration (UF – 10–9m) being most common . Polymeric membranes show low resistance to prolonged heat exposure and corrosive chemicals while ceramic ones mostly retain their properties in these conditions which...